National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology

Islamabad, Pakistan

National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Anwaar S.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Maqbool Q.,The University of Lahore | Maqbool Q.,University of Chakwal | Jabeen N.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs. It is found that CuO-NPs exhibit very promising results against callus induction. It is attributed to the fact that green synthesized CuO-NPs at optimum dosage possess very supportive effects on plant growth parameters. In contrast to callogenesis, differential regeneration pattern has been observed against all of the examined O. sativa L. indigenous verities. Overall observation concludes that CuO, being one of the essential plant nutrients, has greatly tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale. © 2016 Anwaar, Maqbool, Jabeen, Nazar, Abbas, Nawaz, Hussain and Hussain.


Hussain T.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Gondal M.A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Shamraiz M.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

Plasma temperature and electron density of iron in iron slag samples taken from a local plant is studied. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated using Nd: YAG laser at 1064 nm. Some toxic elements were identified and quantitative measurements were also made. Plasma temperature and electron density were estimated using standard equations and well resolved iron spectral lines in the 229.06-358.11 nm region at 10, 20, 30 and 40 mJ laser pulse energy with 4.5 μs delay time. These parameters were found to increase with increase in laser pulse energy. The Boltzmann distribution and experimentally measured line intensities support the assumption that the laser-induced plasma was in local thermal equilibrium. It is worth mentioning that iron and steel sector generates tons of solid waste and residues annually containing variety of contaminants which can be harmful to the environment and therefore knowledge, proper analysis and investigation of such iron slag is important. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Bari B.,University of Michigan | Bari B.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Bari B.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Lee J.,University of Michigan | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2016

Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) random mesh is a strong contender to commercial indium tin oxide (ITO); however, its performance is limited due to large contact resistance between nanowires and post-processing treatments. As an alternative, long nanowires can decrease the number of contact points and contact resistance. Here, a simple modified hydrothermal method for the synthesis of very-long silver nanowires (AgNWs) and their use in a high quality transparent conducting electrode without post-processing has been developed. Well dispersed very-long and thin silver nanowires are synthesized by using glucose as a reducing agent and silver chloride as a silver source. The lengths of the wires are in the range of 200 to 500 μm with an average diameter of 45-65 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on long nanowires having a thin diameter with greater than 200 microns length. As compared to other transparent conductors and nanowire networks, this AgNW network shows a higher percolative figure of merit (FoM, Π) with low haze. A flexible touch screen using the AgNW network is also demonstrated which has shown good performance even on a bendable surface. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Khan R.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Bhatty M.B.,Pakistan Institute of Industrial Control Systems | Iqbal F.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Zaigham H.,Pakistan Institute of Industrial Control Systems | Salam I.,Pakistan Institute of Industrial Control Systems
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

In this study, the effect of processing parameters on the mechanical and microstructural properties of aluminum AA2014-T6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analyzed. Friction stir welding was carried out on a milling machine. Different samples were produced by varying the tool rotational rates (700, 1000 rpm) and travel speeds (45-105 mm/min). Tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyze the microstructural evolution of the material, the welds' cross-sections were observed under optical microscope. The results shows that the resulting microstructure is free of defects and tensile strength of the welded joints is upto 75% of the base metal strength. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Maqsood M.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Nasir M.N.,University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70-75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Ahmad S.N.,National Center for Physics | Hakeem S.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Alvi R.A.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Farooq K.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon gas using chemical vapor deposition method. Synthesis was done at different growth temperatures and catalyst ratios. These MWCNTs were dispersed in epoxy resin (E-51) and their effect on mechanical strength of epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Increase in the mechanical strength of epoxy was observed with the addition of CNTs. The surface characterization was done by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were determined by the general tensile strength testing method. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Saeed S.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Hakeem S.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Faheem M.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Alvi R.A.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

We report on the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on different properties of phenolic resin. A low content of MWCNTs (∼ 0.05 wt%) was mixed in phenolic resin and a stable dispersion was achieved by ultrasonication, followed by melt mixing. After curing the characterization of these composites was done by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal and ablative properties of carbon fiber reinforced MWCNTs-phenolic nanocomposites were also studied. The addition of MWCNTs showed improvement in thermal stability and ablation properties. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Maqsood M.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Usman A.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Bodla M.F.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Bodla M.F.,Allama Iqbal Open University | And 2 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

Roots pumping systems are widely used in industries to generate vacuum with high pumping speed. In the present work, the performance parameters of indigenously developed Roots pumping system have been studied. The performance parameters being studied are the ultimate pressure, working temperature, compression ratio and pumping speed. Ultimate pressure of the Roots pump after continuous running of eight hours is found to be 1.1x10-3 mbar. The most important parameter of the roots pump is the zero-gas flow compression Ratio (Ko) which is found to be 18 for the pumping system under study. Efficiency of Roots pump is found to be 76% which is in good agreement as reported in the literature. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Maqsood M.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Ali J.,Hazara University | Usman A.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology | Farooq M.,Hazara University
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

Accurate and stable gas flows are very important in different applications like, the performance study of vacuum pumps, gauge calibration, leak detection and advance research in low pressure physics. Primary Orifice Plate Flowmeter (OPF) has been designed and developed indigenously. This flowmeter consists of two orifice plates. Orifice-1 (O1) acts as a flow restriction, while orifice-2 (O2) enables continuous pumping mode. By varying upstream pressure P1, a change in downstream pressure P2 is recorded, and the flow-rate is calculated from the conductance "C" of the orifice O1 and pressure difference by the relation Q = C(P 1 - P2). Main feature of this primary OPF is that it is very simple and compact. A stable and reproducible flow-rate has been achieved in the range of 10-5 to 10-6 mbar.l/s. A variation in Q has been observed with a change in temperature of orifice and orifice diameter. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hong S.S.,Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science | Lim J.Y.,Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science | Khan W.,National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2014

Pumping systems with large vacuum chambers have numerous applications in the process industry: for example, mixing of various types of gases as in the semiconductor industry, the calibration of vacuum gauges, the measurement of outgassing rates of various materials in the field of space technology, etc. Most often, these systems are used in the medium vacuum range (10-1 Pa-102 Pa) and in the dynamically-generated pressure mode. We have designed and developed a new dynamic flow system at the KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) that can be used for such applications with reliability in the range from 0.1 Pa - 133 Pa. In this report, the design philosophy, operational procedure and experimental data for the generated stable pressure points in the chamber of the system are discussed. The data consist the pressure points generated in the medium vacuum range while pumping the chamber of the system by using two different methods: first by using a dry scroll pump and then by using a combination of a turbomolecular pump backed by the same scroll pump. The relative standard deviations in the pressure points were calculated and were found to be greater than 1.5% for the scroll pump and less than 0.5% for the turbomolecular pump. © 2014 The Korean Physical Society.

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