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Jeong S.H.,Laboratory of Cell Signaling and Nanomedicine | Kim J.H.,Laboratory of Cell Signaling and Nanomedicine | Yi S.M.,Laboratory of Cell Signaling and Nanomedicine | Lee J.P.,National Institute of Toxicological Research | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Quantum dots (QDs) are rapidly emerging as an important class of nanoparticles (NPs) with potential applications in medicine. However, little is known about penetration of QDs through human skin. This study investigated skin penetration of QDs in both in vivo and in vitro human skin. Using the tape stripping method, this study demonstrates for the first time that QDs can actually penetrate through the stratum corneum (SC) of human skin. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy diverse X-ray (EDX) analysis showed accumulation of QDs in the SC of a human skin equivalent model (HSEM) after dermal exposure to QDs. These findings suggest possible transdermal absorption of QDs after dermal exposure over a relatively long period of time. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Choi B.-S.,Chung - Ang University | Choi S.-J.,Chung - Ang University | Kim D.-W.,Chung - Ang University | Huang M.,Chung - Ang University | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when assessing the exposure to inorganic As and potential chronic health effects of seafood consumption in Korea. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Shin B.S.,Catholic University of Daegu | Hwang S.W.,Sungkyunkwan University | Bulitta J.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lee J.B.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to predict the exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) after oral intake in human blood and tissues using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. A refined PBPK model was developed taking into account of glucuronidation, biliary excretion, and slow absorption of BPA in order to describe the second peak of BPA observed following oral intake. This developed model adequately described the second peak and BPA concentrations in blood and various tissues in rats after oral administration. A prospective validation study in rats additionally supported the proposed model. For extrapolation to humans, a daily oral BPA dose of 0.237 mg/70 kg/d or 0.0034 mg/kg/d was predicted to achieve an average steady-state blood concentration of 0.0055 ng/ml (median blood BPA concentration in Korean pregnant women). This dose was lower than the reference dose (RfD, 0.016 mg/kg/d) and the tolerable daily intake established by the European Commission (10 μg/kg/d). Data indicate that enterohepatic recirculation may be toxicologically important as this pathway may increase exposure and terminal half-life of BPA in humans. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Hung T.M.,Catholic University of Daegu | Van Thu C.,Hanoi University of Pharmacy | Cuong T.D.,Catholic University of Daegu | Hung N.P.,Chosun University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2010

Two new dammarane-type glycosides, 2α,3β,12β,20S- tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→'4) -sβ-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6) -β-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and 2α,3β,12β,20S- tetrahydroxydammar24-ene-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20-O-[β-D-6-O- acetylglucopyranosyl-(l-→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the leaves of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation as well as by chemical studies. The isolated compounds showed potential inhibitory effects on eotaxin expression in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. © 2010 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.


Kim J.S.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-M.,Seoul National University | O J.-J.,National Institute of Toxicological Research | Jeon B.S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the action of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a potential neuroprotective agent against Parkinson's disease (PD), and to test for toxicity resulting from high doses of EGCG. EGCG was administered to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice at two different doses (10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg). EGCG treatment reduced the neuronal death rate to less than 50%. The level of iNOS expression in the MPTP group was 20% higher than that seen in the control group, but in the EGCG groups, iNOS expression was reduced to the level observed in the negative control group. The two doses of EGCG were equally beneficial for cell rescue, and no toxicity was observed with the higher dose. Inhibition of iNOS may be an important mechanism underlying the prevention of MPTP toxicity, and EGCG may potentially be a neuroprotective agent against PD. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Park E.-J.,Dongduk Women's University | Cho W.-S.,National Institute of Toxicological Research | Jeong J.,National Institute of Toxicological Research | Yi J.-H.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Health Science | Year: 2010

Cerium oxide nanoparticles have a high thermodynamic affinity for oxygen and sulfur, which makes them useful in applications such as catalysts, solar cells, and gas sensors. In this study, we investigated the effects of intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the inflammatory responses in mice. The number of neutrophils in bronchoaveolar lavage (BAL) fluids was significantly elevated on day 1 after instillation. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6, were also increased in BAL fluid and the cytokine increase initiated the differentiation of naive T cells, followed by the induction of Th1-type cy-tokines [IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ] and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). The secretion of Th1-type cytokines was more dominant than that of Th2-type cytokines. The inflammatory responses were maintained for 28 days by a positive feedback stimulation of IFN-y and IL-10. In the lung, the expression of inflammatory genes was increased in a time-dependent manner, and granuloma formation appeared on day 14 after instillation. This suggests that intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles causes a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and lung fibrosis in mice. © 2010 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Cuong T.D.,Catholic University of Daegu | Hung T.M.,Catholic University of Daegu | Kim J.-C.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Huh J.-I.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | And 8 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2011

Two new lignans, (2R,3R)-2β-(4-hydroxy-3α-methoxybenzyl)-3-(4- hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl) -γ- butyrolactone 2-O-(β-D-glucopyranoside) (1) and (1S,2R,3S)-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3,6,7-trihydroxy-1-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylate (2) together with nine known compounds (3-11) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the roots of Pulsatilla koreana. Their chemical structures were established based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data analyses. All isolates were investigated for their inhibition effects against the classical pathway of the complement system. Among them, compound 6 showed significant inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 75.9 μM, compounds 8 and 9 had moderate effects with IC 50 values of 182.2 and 166.5 μM, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.


PubMed | National Institute of Toxicological Research
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology | Year: 2010

In previous studies, several strains of mice were used as chemical-induced skin irritation models to identify immunological hazards and elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which irritant dermatitis disease occur. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice have been used for most of these experiments. Although there are some differences in the immune response to chemical allergens between these strains, few studies have been conducted to determine what regulatory factors contribute to these variations.To investigate the cause of high responses to skin irritation in C57BL/6 mice that are widely used to study atopic dermatitis, changes in various immune-related factors such as ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity, lymph node weight, IgE concentration and cytokine concentration were measured in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice following phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment.Based on analysis of the skin irritation, C57BL/6 mice showed a greater skin irritation to PA than BALB/c mice, although the IgE concentration and auricular lymph node weight did not contribute to this difference in the response. However, the concentration of several cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], keratinocyte-derived chemokine [KC] and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]) were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than BALB/c mice following treatment with PA.Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.


PubMed | National Institute of Toxicological Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A | Year: 2010

Koreans generally consume high quantities of soybean-based foods that contain a variety of phytoestrogens, such as, daidzein, zenistein, and biochalin A. However, phytoestrogens are considered to be potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), which interfere with the normal function of the hormonal and reproductive systems. Therefore, dietary exposure to soybean-based phytoestrogens is of concern for Koreans, and comparative dietary risk assessments are required between Japanese (high consumers) versus Americans (low consumers). In this study, a relative risk assessment was conducted based upon daily intake levels of soybean-based foods and phytoestrogens in a Korean cohort, and the risks of photoestrogens were compared with those posed by estradiol and other EDC. Koreans approximately 30-49 yr of age consume on average a total of 135.2 g/d of soy-based foods including soybean, soybean sauce, soybean paste, and soybean oil, and 0.51 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d of phytoestrogens such as daidzein and genistein. Using estimated daily intakes (EDI) and estrogenic potencies (EP), margins of safety (MOS) were calculated where 0.05 is for estradiol (MOS value <1, considered to exert a positive estrogenic effect); thus, MOS values of 1.89 for Japanese, 1.96 for Koreans, and 5.55 for Americans indicate that consumption of soybean-based foods exerted no apparent estrogenic effects, as all MOS values were all higher than 1. For other synthetic EDC used as reference values, MOS values were dieldrin 27, nonylphenol 250, butyl benzyl phthalate 321, bisphenol A 1000, biochanin A 2203, and coumesterol 2898. These results suggest that dietary exposure to phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, poses a relatively higher health risk for humans than synthetic EDC, although MOS values were all greater than 1.


PubMed | National Institute of Toxicological Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A | Year: 2010

In order to comparatively assess the systemic toxicity and sperm parameters, nine phthalate diesters, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and five phthalate monoesters, including mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBeP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were administered orally to Sprague-Dawley male rats at 250 (phthalate monoesters and PA) or 500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d (phthalate diesters) for 4 wk. Liver weights were significantly increased in g roups treated with DEHP, DBP, BBP, DIDP, DINP, MEHP, and MBuP compared to the control. Testes weights were significantly reduced only in DEHP, DBP, and MEHP-treated groups compared to the control. Significant decreases in red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) levels were observed in DEHP-treated rats, whereas significant increases in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelet (PLT) levels were found in the DEHP-treated group. Hemoglobin (Hb) level was reduced only in the DMP group. Similar to effects on testis and epididymal weights, DEHP and MEHP significantly reduced sperm numbers and motility. In particular, DnOP, DBP, BBP, MEP, MBuP, DUP, DINP, and MBeP significantly lowered the sperm counts and sperm motility of epididymal sperm, detected by a change in the sperm motion parameters. The strongest to the weakest adverse effects for sperm motility were as follows: DEHP > DBP > DnOP > DUP > DIDP > BBP among diesters and MBuP > MEP > MEHP among monoesters, respectively. These results suggest that the adverse effects of phthalate esters (PEs) on sperm parameters in male rats are greater with phthalate diesters than monoesters, which may be useful for the risk assessment of phthalates.

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