National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Durgapur, India

The National Institute of Technology Durgapur also known as NIT Durgapur or NITD, is a public engineering college located in Durgapur, West Bengal, India. Formerly known as the Regional Engineering College, Durgapur , it is among the first 8 Regional Engineering Colleges established in India and was founded in 1960 by the then Chief Minister of West Bengal, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy. Today it is one of the 30 National Institutes of Technology in India and has been recognised as an Institute of National Importance by the Government of India under the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007. Wikipedia.

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Gangappa S.N.,Gothenburg University | Botto J.F.,CONICET | Botto J.F.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

The B-box (BBX) proteins are a class of zinc-finger transcription factors containing a B-box domain with one or two B-box motifs, and sometimes also feature a CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) domain. BBX proteins are key factors in regulatory networks controlling growth and developmental processes that include seedling photomorphogenesis, photoperiodic regulation of flowering, shade avoidance, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review we discuss the functions of BBX proteins and the role of B-box motif in mediating transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interaction in plant signaling. In addition, we provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of their action and the evolutionary significance of their functional divergence. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kar S.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur | Das S.,Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College | Ghosh P.K.,Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

This paper surveys neuro fuzzy systems (NFS) development using classification and literature review of articles for the last decade (2002-2012) to explore how various NFS methodologies have been developed during this period. Based on the selected journals of different NFS applications and different online database of NFS, this article surveys and classifies NFS applications into ten different categories such as student modeling system, medical system, economic system, electrical and electronics system, traffic control, image processing and feature extraction, manufacturing and system modeling, forecasting and predictions, NFS enhancements and social sciences. For each of these categories, this paper mentions a brief future outline. This review study indicates mainly three types of future development directions for NFS methodologies, domains and article types: (1) NFS methodologies are tending to be developed toward expertise orientation. (2) It is suggested that different social science methodologies could be implemented using NFS as another kind of expert methodology. (3) The ability to continually change and learning capability is the driving power of NFS methodologies and will be the key for future intelligent applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Misra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Singh S.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks | Year: 2012

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)-based surveillance applications necessitate tracking a target's trajectory with a high degree of precision. Further, target tracking schemes should consider energy consumption in these resource-constrained networks. In this work, we propose an energy-efficient target tracking algorithm, which minimizes the number of nodes in the network that should be activated for tracking the movement of the target. We model the movement of a target based on the Gauss Markov Mobility Model [Camp et al. 2002]. On detecting a target, the cluster head which detects it activates an optimal number of nodes within its cluster, so that these nodes start sensing the target. A Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based framework is designed to adaptively determine the optimal policy for selecting the nodes localized with each cluster. As the distance between the node and the target decreases, the Received Signal Strength (RSS) increases, thereby increasing the precision of the readings of sensing the target at each node. Simulations show that our proposed algorithm is energy-efficient. Also, the accuracy of the tracked trajectory varies between 50% to 1% over time. © 2012 ACM.

Acharjee P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

Maximum loadability limit (MLL) is a realistic index to evaluate the steady state voltage stability because it provides system operator a better practical sense of security margin in the aspects of engineering parameter like system loading. If MLL is identified, load margin, voltage stability, security margin can be determined and precaution can be taken. Conventional power flow methods like Newton-Raphson, Gauss-Siedel, fast decoupled power flow methods suffer to provide proper MLL under security constraints as Jacobian matrix becomes singular when system loading approaches its loadability limit. Hence evolutionary techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) are now-a-days applied to solve the non-linear complex MLL problem. Phase angles, active power, voltage magnitudes of load buses, reactive power of PV buses are considered as security constraints for MLL problem. New simple real coded Security Constraint GA (SCGA) is developed to solve the problem. MLL problem is formulated as maximization problem. As handling of real coded power flow variables are easier than binary coding, real coding of SCGA parameters is applied. Novel formulas are developed to update power flow parameters considering corresponding power mismatches. Utilizing decoupling properties of power system, mutation is implemented. To provide diversity, new parent selection in crossover section is adopted. Weak buses are also identified for the application of FACTS devices. The developed method is compared with general PSO (GPSO) technique for test systems of IEEE 14, 30, 57 and 118 bus. Showing characteristics and results, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is established. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pal P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur | Kumar R.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Separation and Purification Reviews | Year: 2014

The 1980-2011 literature on treatment of coke wastewater towards evolution of a sustainable management strategy is reviewed. Most conventional methods like physicochemical, biological along with recently studied membrane-based treatments have been captured with the purpose of finding out the reasons behind continued environmental pollution from coke oven operations. An extensive list of various methods of removal of cyanide, phenol, ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from coke wastewater has been compiled and their removal capacities under various conditions have been presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancement on the application of membranes. It is evident from the literature survey that chemical or biological treatments followed by membrane separations have the potential for the removal of the hazardous components of coke wastewater. However, there are hardly any reported studies on development of integrated treatment schemes that can turn coke wastewater into usable recycled water. This technology gap needs to be addressed quickly, as such a scheme will not only save on consumption of freshwater but will also protect surface water bodies from contamination by hazardous coke wastewater in the backdrop of severe shortage of freshwater. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ghosh S.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur | Ghoshal S.P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2010

With ever-increasing demand of electricity consumption and increasing open access particularly in restructured environment, transmission line congestion is quite frequent. For maximum benefit and mitigation of congestion, proper sizing and position of distributed generators are ardently necessary. This paper presents a simple method for optimal sizing and optimal placement of generators. A simple conventional iterative search technique along with Newton Raphson method of load flow study is implemented on modified IEEE 6 bus, IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The objective is to lower down both cost and loss very effectively. The paper also focuses on optimization of weighting factor, which balances the cost and the loss factors and helps to build up desired objectives with maximum potential benefit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar R.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur | Pal P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Ammonium nitrogen present in high concentration in ammoniacal waste was recovered through chemical precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate known as struvite with new approaches. For the first time, in such investigations, a central composite design of response surface methodology was adopted to optimise the process parameters in terms of pH, concentration of ammonium nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium salts during precipitation and recovery of struvite. A new membrane-integrated continuous approach ensured very efficient downstream separation and recovery (95%) of struvite and simultaneous purification of water for reuse. This ensured protection of surface water from chemical contamination by a hazardous waste stream. Exhaustive characterisation of the product struvite was done from different angles using scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis and electron diffraction spectroscopy. Findings indicate that with appropriate approaches, hazardous ammoniacal waste under response surface optimised conditions can be efficiently converted simultaneously into a pure, value-added struvite by-product and reusable water. Investigations culminated in an environmentally benign process towards tackling an environmental problem of the industries that generate ammoniacal waste. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chowdhury S.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur | Saha P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

In this work the feasibility of employing sea shell powder to remove Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions was investigated. Parameters that influence the adsorption process such as particle size, pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were studied in batch experiments. Optimum adsorption of Basic Green 4 took place at pH 8.0. Further, the adsorbent was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). FTIR analysis revealed that -OH, -CO3, and -PO4 functional groups were mainly responsible for the adsorption process. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 42.33mgg-1 at 303K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Intraparticle diffusion was not the sole rate-controlling factor. The activation energy (Ea) of dye adsorption was determined at 15.71kJmol-1 according to Arrhenius equation which indicated that the adsorption process of Basic Green 4 onto sea shell powder may be physical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were also calculated and it was found that the adsorption of dye by sea shell powder was a spontaneous process. It was concluded that sea shell powder has potential for application as adsorbent for removal of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Saha P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2010

Tamarind fruit shell was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The various factors affecting adsorption, such as agitation, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, were investigated. The dye adsorption capacity was strongly dependent on solution pH as well as temperature. The Langmuir isotherm model showed good fit to the equilibrium adsorption data, and the maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 1.72 mg g-1 at 303 K. The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant increased with increase in temperature, indicating endothermic nature of adsorption. The Arrhenius equation was used to obtain the activation energy (E a) for the adsorption system. The activation energy was estimated to be 19.65 kJ mol-1. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), enthalpy (ΔH0), and entropy (ΔS0) were also investigated. Results suggested that adsorption of methylene blue onto tamarind fruit shell was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The present investigation suggests that tamarind fruit shell may be utilized as a low-cost adsorbent for methylene blue removal from aqueous solution. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Acharjee P.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2013

The global electricity industry faces many challenges that require immediate attention to growth, expansion and diversity into renewable energy resources such as wind. A major strategic effort is required from power enterprises in developed and developing countries alike, to deal with the increasing grid complexity to integrate diverse energy resources, including the intermittency of wind, into the power systems. This concern for dependency, delivery and costs for energy brings increased safety risks and more constraints for reliable operation of power systems. Smart Grids (SG) has become one of the key developments to solve these problems. In this paper, the present power situation of India is discussed and prospective energy options are outlined. The effects of SG development on social, economic and power sectors are discussed. The main obstacles for the implementation of SG in India are highlighted and their remedies are proposed. A possible framework for the SG architecture and design of SG-features is outlined, considering practical constraints. The recent initiatives taken by the Government of India (GoI) related to smart grids are described. Considering the social, economical, political and environmental circumstances, the paper suggests a strategy for steps to implement smart grids in India. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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