National Institute of Sports Medicine
National Institute of Sports Medicine
Qin L.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Qin L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
Wang Q.-R.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Wang Q.-R.,University of South Carolina |
And 10 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2017
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, VO2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO), hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO), and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO). They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% (w/v). In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% VO2max, one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA) was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a “time to exhaustion test” (TTE). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort) were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than baseline following the treatment of L-CHO, H-CHO, and PLA (p < 0.05). The CHO oxidation rate at 60 min in the first exercise session was significantly higher than that at 60 min in the second exercise session following the L-CHO treatment (p < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The CHO sports beverage with additional PRO maintains insulin production during endurance cycling at 70% VO2max in the postprandial state. L-CHO sports beverage suppresses fat utilization during the subsequent exercise performance test. The subsequent exercise performance (as evaluated by TTE) was not influenced by the type of CHO or the addition of PRO in the commercially available sports beverages used in the present study. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Yi M.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Fu J.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Zhou L.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Gao H.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2014
Background: Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes.Methods: A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis.Results: ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement. © 2014 Yi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Mountjoy M.,McMaster University |
Junge A.,Medical Assessment and Research Center |
Alonso J.M.,Real Federacion Espanola de Atletismo |
Engebretsen L.,International Olympic Committee IOC |
And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010
Background Analysis of injury and illness prevalence in elite sport provides the basis for the development of prevention programmes. Objectives To analyse the frequency and characteristics of injuries and illnesses occurring during the 13th Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Championships 2009. Design Prospective recording of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Methods The 13th FINA World Championships hosted 2592 athletes from 172 countries in the disciplines of swimming, diving, synchronised swimming water polo and open water swimming. All team physicians or physiotherapists were asked to complete daily a standardised reporting form for all newly incurred injuries and illnesses for their teams. To cover teams without medical staff, the physicians of the Local Organizing Committee also submitted daily report forms. Results 171 injuries were reported resulting in an incidence of 66.0 per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected body parts were the shoulder (n=25; 14.6%), and head (n=21; 12.3%). Half of the injuries occurred during training. The most common cause of injury was overuse (n=61; 37.5%). 184 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence of 71.0 per 1000 registered athletes. The respiratory tract was most commonly affected (n=91; 50.3%) and the most frequently classifi ed cause was infection (n=81; 49.2%). The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among the fi ve disciplines, with the highest incidence of injury in diving and the lowest in swimming. Conclusions As the risk of injury varied with the discipline, preventive measures should be discipline specifi c and focused on minimising the potential for overuse. As most of the illnesses were caused by infection of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, preventive interventions should focus on eliminating common modes of transmission.
Ionescu S.,Marie S Curie Emergency Children Hospital |
Andrei B.,Marie S Curie Emergency Children Hospital |
Licsandru E.,Marie S Curie Emergency Children Hospital |
Ivanov M.,Marie S Curie Emergency Children Hospital |
Ionescu A.M.,National Institute of Sports Medicine
Chirurgia (Romania) | Year: 2014
Background: We present our experience in the first 20 cases of complicated acute appendicitis in children, junior athletes, managed laparoscopically. Materials and method: We selected our first 20 patients, aged between 3 and 17 (median age 10), with complicated acute appendicitis treated laparoscopically. We analysed the intraand postoperative complications, operative time, length of hospitalization and their return period to previous training. Four cases were excluded from the study because they were converted to open appendectomy (OA). Results: One case developed a parietal abscess at the place of insertion of the suprapubic trocar and was treated locally. There were no cases with intraabdominal abscesses to require drainage. Fever on the 3rd postoperative day appeared in one patient which required reassessment of the antibiotic treatment. Length of hospitalization was between 4 and 8 days. The athletes resumed their sports activity after 10 - 12 days. Conclusion: Complicated acute appendicitis (generalized peritonitis, localized abscess, perforated abscess), was once a contraindication for laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Today LA is the first choice of surgical treatment for most of the surgeons. Due to the limited number of patients we have operated on laparoscopically up to this present paper we cannot draw a statistically significant conclusion, but the good results are encouraging us to continue using this approach as the first line treatment in children and more over for those who need a rapid return to intense physical activity. © Celsius.
Macarie C.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases |
Stoian I.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases |
Barbarii L.,National Institute of Forensic Medicine Mina Minovici |
Ionescu A.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
And 4 more authors.
Medicina dello Sport | Year: 2010
Aim: Electrocardiograms in elite endurance athletes sometimes show bizarre, training-unrelated patterns suggestive of inherited channelopathies (Brugada syndrome, long QT syndromes) and cardiomyopathies (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy) responsible for unexpected sudden cardiac death. The athletes, most of them without symptoms and in good athletic condition, present normal clinical exams. For the correct diagnosis they must be meticulously investigated and specific genetic testing aiso carried out. Objective: to correlate 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns, uncommon and training-unrelated conditions suggestive of inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies with specific genetic analysis, in asymptomatic athletes with normal physical exams and echocardiographic data. Methods: Prospective study (2004-2008) of ECG in standard and higher V1-V3 in athletes and normal age-matched sedentary subjects. Genetic analysis for ECG abnormalities suggestive of inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. 347 athletes (190 seniors, 157 juniors, mean age 20; 200 subjects, mean age 21 (Controls-505 normal sedentary). Results: Seniors. RSR'(V1-V3), 45 (23.68%)-5 with borderline Brugada sign. V1-V3 ST-segment elevation-upward convexity-and negative T-wave, 34 (17.89%). Brugada 1 sign, 1 (0.52%)- no SCN5A abnormalities; 3 (1.57%) epsilon wavesno gene mutations. Juniors. Upright J wave in 43 (27.38%); V1-V3 ST segment elevation, 39 (24.84%) athletes, 9 (5.73%) of which with borderline Brugada sign;gene duplications: KCN (n=1) and SCN5A(n=1) in two of them. Bifid T wave in 39 (24.84%), 5 of which with QTc (0.48sec-0.56sec) and KCN gene mutations. Conclusion: Asymptomatic endurance athletes sometimes present uncommon and training-unrelated ECG patterns.The confirmation of the disease-through specific tests including genetic analysis-in a few cases, suggests that the majority of athletes have training related ECG abnormalities. Preparticipation screening (physical examination, 12-lead ECG) and 6-12 month follow-up are mandatory in the identification of athletes with sudden cardiac death risk diseases.
Guo F.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
Shao J.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Liu Q.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
Shi J.-B.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
Jiang G.-B.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences
Talanta | Year: 2014
A novel method for automated and sensitive analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone and methenolone in urine samples by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. The Turboflow C18-P SPE column showed the best extraction efficiency for all the analytes. Nanogram per liter (ng/L) level of AAS could be determined directly and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 ng/mL, which were much lower than normally concerned concentrations for these typical anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (0.1 ng/mL). The linearity range was from the LOQ to 100 ng/mL for each compound, with the coefficients of determination (r2) ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9999. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.1% to 14.5% (n=5). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine samples collected from 24 male athletes and 15 patients of prostate cancer. The proposed method provides an alternative practical way to rapidly determine AAS in urine samples, especially for clinical monitoring and doping control. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Li W.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Shang X.,National Institute of Sports Medicine |
Lu Z.,National Institute of Sports Medicine
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine | Year: 2013
Objective: To look for the presence of scapular muscle imbalance(SMI) in elite table tennis athletes, while to determine its surface electromyogram(sEMG) characteristics and mechanism. Method: The sEMG data were collected while the participants performed striking, the athletes were divided into 3 groups: healthy athlete group(HA), imbalance athlete group(IA), control group(CON). Result: During observe strike, compared with HA group and CON group, the activities of upper trapezius(UT) and serratus anterior(SA) of IA group were stronger(P=0.002, P=0.004, and P<0.001, respectively); while middle trapezius(MT) had less activity(P<0.001); during reverse strike, compared with HA group and CON group, the activity of UT of IA group were stronger(P<0.001), while middle trapezius(MT) had less activity(P=0.015). Conclusion: The SMI was presented in table tennis athletes; its sEMG had unique characteristics; and the anterior, lateral and inferior displacements of glenohumeral might occur in table tennis athletes with SMI.
Mountjoy M.,McMaster University |
Akef N.,International Olympic Committee IOC |
Budgett R.,International Olympic Committee IOC |
Greinig S.,International Olympic Committee IOC |
And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
Background: Antidoping and medical care delivery programmes are required at all large international multisport events. Objective: To document and critique the novel antidoping and medical care delivery models implemented at the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games, Nanjing 2014. Methods: The International Olympic Committee implemented two new models of delivery of antidoping and medical care at the YOG. A review of these models as well as the public health programme and two health educational initiatives in the Cultural and Educational Program was undertaken by the International Olympic Committee. Results: The implementation of the new antidoping model was feasible in the setting of the YOG. The antidoping rules and regulations of the International Olympic Committee were respected. This model enhanced the educational initiative and provided financial as well as human resource savings. The execution of the hospital-based venue model of medical care delivery at the YOG was also feasible in this setting. This model provided a practical infrastructure for the delivery of medical care at multisport events with the goal of providing optimum athlete healthcare. A public health prevention programme was implemented and no public health risks were encountered by the participants or the Nanjing citizens during the YOG. Finally, the implementation of the athlete health educational programmes within the Cultural and Educational Program provided athletes with an opportunity to improve their health and performance. Conclusions: To achieve the goal of protecting athlete health, and of employing effective doping control and education, new alternate models of antidoping and medical care delivery can be implemented.
PubMed | University of Lausanne, China Anti doping Agency CHINADA, National Institute of Sports Medicine, Medical Committee and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of sports medicine | Year: 2015
Antidoping and medical care delivery programmes are required at all large international multisport events.To document and critique the novel antidoping and medical care delivery models implemented at the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games, Nanjing 2014.The International Olympic Committee implemented two new models of delivery of antidoping and medical care at the YOG. A review of these models as well as the public health programme and two health educational initiatives in the Cultural and Educational Program was undertaken by the International Olympic Committee.The implementation of the new antidoping model was feasible in the setting of the YOG. The antidoping rules and regulations of the International Olympic Committee were respected. This model enhanced the educational initiative and provided financial as well as human resource savings. The execution of the hospital-based venue model of medical care delivery at the YOG was also feasible in this setting. This model provided a practical infrastructure for the delivery of medical care at multisport events with the goal of providing optimum athlete healthcare. A public health prevention programme was implemented and no public health risks were encountered by the participants or the Nanjing citizens during the YOG. Finally, the implementation of the athlete health educational programmes within the Cultural and Educational Program provided athletes with an opportunity to improve their health and performance.To achieve the goal of protecting athlete health, and of employing effective doping control and education, new alternate models of antidoping and medical care delivery can be implemented.