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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Kudo S.,University of Otago | Vennell R.,University of Otago | Wilson B.,National Institute of Sport
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2013

This study describes the effect of hand acceleration on hydrodynamic forces acting on the human hand in angular and general motions with variable hand accelerations. Even if accelerations of a swimmer's hand are believed to have an important role in generating hydrodynamic forces on the hand, the effect of accelerations in angular and general motions on hydrodynamic forces on the swimmers hand has not been previously quantified. Understanding how hand acceleration influences force generation can provide useful information to enhance swimming performance. A hand-forearm model attached to a tri-axial load cell was constructed to measure hydrodynamic forces acting only on the hand when the model was rotated and accelerated in a swimming flume. The effect of acceleration on hydrodynamic forces on the hand was described by comparing the difference between accelerating and non-accelerating hands in different flow conditions. Hydrodynamic forces on the accelerating hand varied between 1.9 and 10 times greater than for the non-accelerating hand in angular motion and varied between 1.7 and 25 times greater than for the non-accelerating hand in general motion. These large increases occurred not only during positive acceleration phases but also during negative acceleration phases, and may be due to the added mass effect and a vortex formed on the dorsal side of the hand. This study provides new evidence for enhanced stroke techniques in swimming to generate increased propulsion by changing hand velocity during a stroke. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aubry A.,National Institute of Sport | Hausswirth C.,National Institute of Sport | Louis J.,National Institute of Sport | Coutts A.J.,University of Technology, Sydney | Le Meur Y.,National Institute of Sport
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether performance supercompensation during taper is maximized in endurance athletes after experiencing overreaching during an overload training (OT) period. METHODS: Thirty-three trained male triathletes were assigned to either OT (n = 23) or normal training groups (n = 10, CTL) during 8 wk. Cycling performance and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) were measured after 1 wk of moderate training, a 3-wk period of OT, and then each week during 4-wk taper. RESULTS: Eleven of the 23 subjects from the OT group were diagnosed as functionally overreached (F-OR) after the overload period (decreased performance with concomitant high perceived fatigue), whereas the 12 other subjects were only acutely fatigued (AF) (no decrease in performance). According to qualitative statistical analysis, the AF group demonstrated a small to large greater peak performance supercompensation than the F-OR group (2.6% ± 1.1%) and the CTL group (2.6% ± 1.6%). V̇O2max increased significantly from baseline at peak performance only in the CTL and AF groups. Of the peak performances, 60%, 83%, and 73% occurred within the two first weeks of taper in CTL, AF, and OR, respectively. Ten cases of infection were reported during the study with higher prevalence in F-OR (70%) than that in AF (20%) and CTL (10%). CONCLUSION: This study showed that 1) greater gains in performance and V̇O2max can be achieved when higher training load is prescribed before the taper but not in the presence of F-OR; 2) peak performance is not delayed during taper when heavy training loads are completed immediately prior; and 3) F-OR provides higher risk for training maladaptation, including increased infection risks. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Rabita G.,National Institute of Sport | Dorel S.,University of Nantes | Slawinski J.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense | Saez-de-Villarreal E.,Pablo De Olavide University | And 3 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanics of maximal running sprint acceleration in high-level athletes. Four elite (100-m best time 9.95-10.29s) and five sub-elite (10.40-10.60s) sprinters performed seven sprints in overground conditions. A single virtual 40-m sprint was reconstructed and kinetics parameters were calculated for each step using a force platform system and video analyses. Anteroposterior force (FY), power (PY), and the ratio of the horizontal force component to the resultant (total) force (RF, which reflects the orientation of the resultant ground reaction force for each support phase) were computed as a function of velocity (V). FY-V, RF-V, and PY-V relationships were well described by significant linear (mean R2 of 0.892±0.049 and 0.950±0.023) and quadratic (mean R2=0.732±0.114) models, respectively. The current study allows a better understanding of the mechanics of the sprint acceleration notably by modeling the relationships between the forward velocity and the main mechanical key variables of the sprint. As these findings partly concern world-class sprinters tested in overground conditions, they give new insights into some aspects of the biomechanical limits of human locomotion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Hausswirth C.,National Institute of Sport | Louis J.,National Institute of Sport | Aubry A.,National Institute of Sport | Bonnet G.,University of Paris 13 | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine whether (i) objective markers of sleep quantity and quality are altered in endurance athletes experiencing overreaching in response to an overload training program and (ii) potential reduced sleep quality would be accompanied with a higher prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections in this population. METHODS: Twenty-seven trained male triathletes were randomly assigned to either overload (n = 18) or normal (CTL, n = 9) training groups. Respective training programs included a 1-wk moderate training phase followed by a 3-wk period of overload or normal training, respectively, and then a subsequent 2-wk taper. Maximal aerobic power and oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max) from incremental cycle ergometry were measured after each phase, whereas mood states and incidences of illness were determined from questionnaires. Sleep was monitored every night of the 6 wk using wristwatch actigraphy. RESULTS: Of the 18 overload training group subjects, 9 were diagnosed as functionally overreached (F-OR) after the overload period, as based on declines in performance and V̇O2max with concomitant high perceived fatigue (P < 0.05), whereas the other 9 overload subjects showed no decline in performance (AF, P > 0.05). There was a significant time-group interaction for sleep duration (SD), sleep efficiency (SE), and immobile time (IT). Only the F-OR group demonstrated a decrease in these three parameters (-7.9% ± 6.7%,-1.6% ± 0.7%, and-7.6% ± 6.6% for SD, SE, and IT, respectively, P < 0.05), which was reversed during the subsequent taper phase. Higher prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections were also reported in F-OR (67%, 22%, and 11% incidence rate for F-OR, AF, and CTL, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study confirms sleep disturbances and increased illness in endurance athletes who present with symptoms of F-OR during periods of high volume training. © 2014 by the American college of Sports Medicine. Source

Meur Y.L.,National Institute of Sport | Hausswirth C.,National Institute of Sport | Natta F.,National Institute of Sport | Couturier A.,National Institute of Sport | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

In sport, high training load required to reach peak performance pushes human adaptation to their limits. In that process, athletes may experience general fatigue, impaired performance, and may be identified as overreached (OR). When this state lasts for several months, an overtraining syndrome is diagnosed (OT). Until now, no variable per se can detect OR, a requirement to prevent the transition from OR to OT. It encouraged us to further investigate OR using a multivariate approach, including physiological, biomechanical, cognitive, and perceptive monitoring. Twenty-four highly trained triathletes were separated into an overload group and a normo-trained group (NT) during 3 wk of training. Given the decrement of their running performance, 11 triathletes were diagnosed as OR after this period. A discriminant analysis showed that the changes of eight parameters measured during a maximal incremental test could explain 98.2% of the OR state (lactatemia, heart rate, biomechanical parameters and effort perception). Variations in heart rate and lactatemia were the two most discriminating factors. When the multifactorial analysis was restricted to these variables, the classification score reached 89.5%. Catecholamines and creatine kinase concentrations at rest did not change significantly in both groups. Running pattern was preserved and cognitive performance decrement was observed only at exhaustion in OR subjects. This study showed that monitoring various variables is required to prevent the transition between NT and OR. It emphasized that an OR index, which combines heart rate and blood lactate concentration changes after a strenuous training period, could be helpful to routinely detect OR. Copyright © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

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