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Chakraborty S.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Kumar R.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Haldkar A.K.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Ranjan S.,National Institute of Solar Energy
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2017

This paper presents a reliable mathematical method to predict the energy generation from grid connected photovoltaic plant of different commercially used technologies in different zones of India. Global horizontal insolation (GHI) and daytime temperature are the two major parameters affecting the output of photovoltaic (PV) plant. Depending on those two major parameters, India is classified into 15 climatic zones. Typical Meteorological Year data were collected from National Renewable Energy Laboratory to classify India in different climatic zones. Energy generation of different commercially used PV technologies in different climatic zones of India is predicted using proposed mathematical method. These results show a decisive study to choose the best PV technology for different climatic zones of India. Results predict that in almost all climatic zones, amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the best suitable PV technology. In very low-temperature zones, irrespective of GHI, the second best suitable PV technology is mono and cadmium telluride (CdTe) as generation from these two technologies is same. Whereas in other climatic zones, after a-Si the best suitable is CdTe PV technology. Predicted energy generation is validated with the 1-year generation of 2014 from 15 working PV plants of different technologies. Predicted generation is in good co-relation with the actual real-time generation from the PV plants. © 2017 The Author(s)

Mitra S.,Indian Institute of Science | Ghosh H.,Indian Institute of Science | Saha H.,Indian Institute of Science | Kumar Datta S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 2 more authors.
Optics Communications | Year: 2017

In this article, we present systematic simulations and numerical analysis of a novel light trapping scheme in a partial rear contact (PRC) solar cell involving a combined effect of rear located Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and Mie scatterers comprising of dielectric nanoparticles (DNP), thereby, enhancing the efficiency of the device. We have studied the effect of three different types of DBRs in combination with embedded silica (SiO2) DNPs which scatter light into silicon substrate of PRC c-Si solar cell. The materials for DBRs are chosen in such a way that they may serve the dual purpose of reflecting more than 90% of incident light at the rear surface and passivating it as well. The internal reflection from the rear surface, absorption enhancement ratio and average scattering angle have been computed from 3-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations and performing numerical analysis later on. Further, these results are used in the analysis of basic solar cell to extract the parameters like short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, reverse saturation current density and efficiency of solar cell. It has been observed that significant increase in efficiency can be achieved for solar cells having 10–100 µm thick substrates by incorporating this light trapping scheme. Beyond 100 µm thickness, the conversion efficiency approaches a saturation value. Moreover, a combination of DBR with silica nanoparticles results in maximum efficiency near 50 µm thickness of solar cell thereby improving the baseline efficiency from ~20.3% to an absolute value of 22.9%. This study opens up a new perspective of light management using the advantages of highly reflective DBRs and highly scattering DNPs which can be incorporated in a rather simple and inexpensive way for thin (<100 µm) silicon solar cells. © 2017

Das G.,Indian Institute of Science | Mandal S.,Indian Institute of Science | Dhar S.,Indian Institute of Science | Bose S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2017

In this paper we present the role of plasma excitation frequency and electsrode separation on the growth of microcrystalline silicon thin films at two different hydrogen dilutions of silane and different power densities. We optimized the process conditions to develop device quality microcrystalline material. Optoelectronic and structural properties of the developed material have been correlated with the solar cell properties. Growth rate ~7 Å/s has been achieved using plasma excitation frequency of 27.12 MHz at 15 mm electrode separation. We have noticed the positive effects after reducing the electrode separation in higher frequency (27.12 MHz). Optimized microcrystalline film of activation energy 0.55 eV and grain size of 14.61 nm has been developed and is applied to fabricate single junction microcrystalline solar cell. Solar cell with initial cell efficiency of 7.75% with short circuit current density of 24.98 mA/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.47 V and fill factor of 0.66 has been achieved. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Das G.,Indian Institute of Science | Mandal S.,Indian Institute of Science | Dhar S.,Indian Institute of Science | Bose S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 3 more authors.
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing | Year: 2017

In p-i-n structure a-Si solar cell a buffer layer with proper characteristics plays important role in improving the p/i interface of the cell, reducing mismatch of band gaps and number of recombination centres. However for p-i-n structure microcrystalline ( µc-Si: H) cell which has much less light induced degradation than a-Si:H cell, not much work has been done on development of proper buffer layer and its application to µc-Si:H cell. In this paper we have reported the development of two intrinsic oxide based microcrystalline layer having different characteristics for use as buffer layers at the p/i interface of µc-Si:H cell. Previously SiOx:H buffer layer has been used at the p/i interface which showed positive effects. To explore the possibility of improving the performance of p-i-n structure µc-Si:H cell further we have thought it interesting to use two buffer layers with different characteristics at the p/i interface. The two buffer layers have been characterized in detail and applied at the p/i interface of the µc-Si:H cell with positive effects on all the PV parameters mainly improves the open circuit voltage (Voc) and enhances short circuit current (Isc). The maximum initial efficiency obtained is 8.97% with dual buffer which is 6.7% higher than that obtained by using conventional single buffer layer at the p/i interface. Stabilized efficiency of the cell with dual buffer is found to be ~9.5% higher than that with single buffer after 600 h of light soakings. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Nikhil P.G.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Subhakar D.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Singh S.J.,Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd.
2015 International Conference on Control, Communication and Computing India, ICCC 2015 | Year: 2015

A simulation algorithm to estimate the total energy generated from a grid connected PV facility at any given location and for a given capacity is developed. The proposed simulation model combines the analytical methods with long term performance at hourly interval, and there by evaluating the optimum distribution units based on the cost function. The goodness of the simulation is validated using cumulative generation data from a 2 MW PV power plant. The novelty of the approach is established by sorting out the best commercial PV modules available in the market based on maximum electricity units generated per unit area, with reference to their name plate specifications. Further, the application of the simulation algorithm is demonstrated by evaluating the sizing requirement of a 1 MW scale grid connected PV power facility for Vellore district of Tamilnadu. The simulation algorithm also attempts to explore the effect of Nominal operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) on the plant capacity factor. Conclusions of this paper are good references for the sizing of grid connected roof top PV power plants, as well as to decisively choose the module specifications. © 2015 IEEE.

Priya S.S.,Karunya University | Sastry O.S.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Bora B.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Kumar A.,Tezpur University
2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 | Year: 2015

The performance of PV module is compared through measuring I-V characteristics at STC. But usually in the real outdoors the PV module behaves differently. To estimate the power and energy rating under different climatic conditions, I-V curves are extrapolated by applying corrections. In this paper we have examined I-V curve's correction procedure as per IEC 60891 for different temperature and irradiance conditions of three thin film PV technologies viz. CIGS, CdTe, Micro-morph, and a comparison is made with measured data in real outdoor conditions. Deviations from estimated and measured output for three different correction procedures are compared. The correction procedure 3 gives the best results as compared to procedure 1 & procedure 2. © 2015 IEEE.

News Article | December 1, 2015
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and French President François Hollande, along with world leaders, launched the International Solar Alliance on the inaugural day of the U.N. Climate Summit in Paris. The solar alliance brings together key countries and invites over 100 solar-rich countries to propel clean energy and protect the climate. The cooperation demonstrated by both developed and developing countries in launching the solar alliance gives a head start to the collective, flexible cooperation needed to hammer out an international agreement in Paris to sustainably and effectively fight climate pollution. “We must turn to solar to power our future,” urged Prime Minister Modi in launching the International Solar Alliance. President Hollande praised India’s leadership and called for France and others to mobilize finance and technology to achieve climate justice during the summit. Indian Power Minister Piyush Goyal explained, “We share collective ambition to take innovative, concerted efforts to reduce the cost of finance and technology for solar energy.” The International Solar Alliance invites countries located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn to join, including many African and Asian nations, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, France, China and the United States. Prime Minister Modi estimates $100 billion will be needed annually by 2020 to finance the clean power initiative. India’s National Institute of Solar Energy will lead the coordination of the solar alliance initiative for the first five years. The International Solar Alliance is part of India’s effort to advance a low-carbon economy, including domestic targets to install 100 gigawatts of solar energy by 2022. Prime Minister Modi also marked India’s progress, noting that India’s current installed solar energy capacity of 4 gigawatts will jump to 12 gigawatts by the end of 2016. The launch of the International Solar Alliance shows the flexibility and cooperation needed at the negotiations to achieve a strong agreement to reduce global warming pollution. In applauding India for its innovation and leadership in solar energy, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged leaders to take even great action this week and to come together to protect our planet and fight climate change. NRDC’s full statement is available here. Following is a statement by Rhea Suh, President of the Natural Resources Defense Council: “This unprecedented international solar collaboration sets an encouraging tone as country representatives gather today to reach a new global climate agreement. India’s leading role in forming an International Solar Alliance anchors its own climate commitment to ramp up renewable energy. It also has the potential to propel international solar markets forward, all while fighting climate change, improving global health and boosting economies.” Following is a statement by Anjali Jaiswal, India Initiative Director for the Natural Resources Defense Council: “Coupled with its comprehensive solar program aiming to reach 100 gigawatts by 2022, India has once again positioned itself as a global leader in clean energy. The International Solar Alliance aims to expand solar power primarily in countries that are resource-rich but energy poor, where clean energy solutions are most needed. Developing affordable solar technologies and attracting the considerable investment required to finance the envisioned solar transition are critical steps to support India and other countries to achieve their ambitious clean energy goals set as part of the Paris negotiations.” Following is a statement by JingJing Qian, China Program Director for the Natural Resources Defense Council: “As the world’s solar market leader, China has much to offer and can benefit greatly from its participation in the International Solar Alliance. China has pledged to cap its carbon emissions within 15 years, primarily through transitioning to solar and wind energy to power its development. With the U.S. and China joining India, along with over 100 other nations, to support this solar alliance on the first day of the UN climate negotiations, the majority of greenhouse gas emitters are demonstrating tremendous leadership to develop sustainably while curbing climate change.” Following is a statement by Dr. Arunabha Ghosh, CEO of the Council on Energy, Environment and Water: “The launch of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a historic step for global cooperation and a much needed boost for a low-carbon future. Under India’s leadership, the ISA could inspire and support several developed and developing countries to advance on a clean energy pathway by lowering financing costs, developing common standards, encouraging knowledge sharing and facilitating R&D collaborations and co-development of technologies to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) announced earlier this year. India has emerged as the natural leader for this alliance, with its ambitious targets to install 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022, and non-fossil fuel electricity generating systems accounting for 40% of the cumulative installed capacity by 2030.”

Chakraborty S.,Indian School of Mines | Kumar R.,National Institute of Solar Energy
World Journal of Engineering | Year: 2015

The power output of Photo-voltaic modules is generally rated at STC (Standard Test Condition), 1000W/m2 irradiance, 25oC temperature and 1.5G Air Mass. But in actual field condition the situation is different from STC. Output of PV module is a function of Irradiance, ambient temperature, wind speed and module temperature. It is well established that power output of PV module decreases with increase of module temperature. So it is important to know the temperature of PV module to determine the reduction in power output due to temperature. Module temperature can be determined if irradiance at that instant and NOCT value of that module is known. This work presents the variation in NOCT value with respect to rated power output of PV module and comparison of NOCT values for same rated power mono and multi crystalline Si modules from various manufacturers. According to this study NOCT value increases with the wattage of PV module. For same rated power modules, NOCT value of mono crystalline Si is more than multi crystalline Si.

Chopde A.,Vishwakarma Institute of Technology | Chopde A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Magare D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Patil M.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | And 2 more authors.
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

A dynamic thermal model for a photovoltaic (PV) module has been developed, considering all possible mechanisms of heat transfer between the module and its environment. The particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique is applied for extraction of model parameters from experimental data. The model is then used to predict the PV module temperature variation with time on different days of the year. It is shown that the predicted temperature tracks the experimentally measured temperature very closely for a variety of atmospheric conditions at the location of installation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rajput P.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Tiwari G.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Bora B.,National Institute of Solar Energy | Sastry O.S.,National Institute of Solar Energy
2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents the analysis of visual and electrical degradation of 22 years field aged mono crystalline silicon PV module in composite climate of India. The visual degradation data is correlated with the electrical performance degradation data. Average power degradation rate for the studied PV module is more than 1% per year. The discoloration of back-sheet, bus-bar, cell inter connect ribbon, string interconnect ribbon and solar cell are found to be obvious in all the modules, however the percentage of defects are different. © 2015 IEEE.

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