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Narayanan N.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital | Suba V.,National Institute of Siddha
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2011

Background: A system that can deliver multi-drug at a prolonged rate is very important for the treatment of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and heart disease. Controlled porosity osmotic pump tablet (CPOP) system was designed to deliver Nifedipine (NP) and Metoprolol (MP) in a controlled manner up to 12 h. It was prepared by incorporating drugs in the core and coated with various types (PVP, PEG-400 and HPMC) and levels (30, 40 and 50% w/w of polymer) of pore former at a weight gain of 8, 12 & 15%. Results: Formulation variables like type and level of pore former and percent weight gain of membrane was found to affect the drug release from the developed formulations. Drug release was inversely proportional to the membrane weight but directly related to the level of pore former. Burst strength of the exhausted shell was inversely proportional to the level of pore former, but directly affected by the membrane weight. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed the formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. Dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics. In vitro release kinetics was subjected to superposition method to predict in vivo performance of the developed formulation. Conclusion: The developed osmotic system is effective in the multi-drug therapy of hypertension by delivering both drugs in a controlled manner. © 2011 Kumaravelrajan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Sri Ramachandra University, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Tufts University and National Institute of Siddha
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global heart | Year: 2015

We designed and implemented the PURSE-HIS (Population Study of Urban, Rural and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study) to understand the prevalence and progression of subclinical and overt endovascular disease (EVD) and its risk factors in urban, semiurban, and rural communities in South India. The study is also designed to generate clinical evidence for effective, affordable, and sustainable community-specific intervention strategies to control risks factors for EVD. As of June 2012, 8,080 (urban: 2,221; semiurban: 2,821; rural: 3,038) participants >20 years of age were recruited using 2-stage cluster sampling. Baseline measurements included standard cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, psychosocial factors, and nutritional assessment. Fasting blood samples were assayed for putative biochemical risk factors and urine samples for microalbuminuria. All nondiabetic participants underwent oral glucose tolerance test with blood and urine samples collected every 30 min for 2 h. Additional baseline measurements included flow-mediated brachial artery endothelial vasodilation, assessment of carotid intimal medial wall thickness using ultrasonography, screening for peripheral vascular disease using ankle and brachial blood pressures, hemodynamic screening using a high-fidelity applanation tonometry to measure central blood pressure parameters, and aortic pulse wave velocity. To assess prevalence of coronary artery disease, all participants underwent surface electrocardiography and documentation of ventricular wall motion abnormality and function using echocardiography imaging. To detect subclinical lesions, all eligible participants completed an exercise treadmill test. Prospectively, the study will assess progression of subclinical and overt EVD, including risk factor-outcome relation differences across communities. The study will also evaluate community-specific EVD prevention using traditional Indian system of medicine versus recognized allopathic (mainstream) systems of medicine.


R M.,National Institute of Siddha | Ramaswamy R.S.,Central Council for Research in Siddha
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

Siddha system of medicine is a traditional system practised among Tamil speaking people of India. Siddhars, the ancient scientists are the founders of this system. Herbs, minerals/metals and animal products are used in medicine preparation. Kandhga Rasayanam is a herbo mineral drug mentioned in classic Siddha text. It is used in treating skin diseases, urinary infections, venereal diseases, arthritis etc. The present review is aimed to collect information about toxicity studies and phytoconstituents substantiating the traditional claim of safety and efficacy. Most of the herbal drugs were found to be nontoxic and rich in secondary metabolites responsible for antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. This compound drug mentioned in Siddha literature is thus validated.


Mutheeswaran S.,Entomology Research Institute | Pandikumar P.,Entomology Research Institute | Chellappandian M.,Entomology Research Institute | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Siddha system of traditional medicine has been practiced in Tamil Nadu. This system of medicine has a high number of non-institutionally trained practitioners but studies on their traditional medicinal knowledge are not adequate. The present study is aimed to document and analyze the sastric (traditional) formulations used by the non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners in Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, interviews were conducted with 115 non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners about the sastric formulations used by them for the treatment. Successive free listing method was adopted to collect the data and the data were analyzed by calculating Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR). Results The study documented data regarding 194 sastric formulations and they were classified into plant, mineral and animal based formulations. Quantitative analysis showed that 62.5% of the formulations were plant based, while the mineral based formulations had a high mean number of citations and versatile uses. Gastrointestinal (12.0%), kapha (11.3%) and dermatological (10.8%) ailments had a high percentage of citations. Jaundice had a high Fic value (0.750) followed by the dermatological ailments. The illness categories with high Fic values under each type of formulation were as follows: jaundice, aphrodisiac and urinary ailments (plant based); jaundice, cuts & wounds and dermatological ailments (mineral based); and hemorrhoids, kapha ailments and heart ailments (animal based formulations). The scientific studies conducted with important formulations under each illness category are discussed. Conclusion The present study indicated the importance of some illnesses over the others and inclusion of new illnesses under each formulation. The ingredients used to prepare these formulations have shown varying degrees of scientific evidence; generally limited studies were available on the efficacy of them as formulations. Further in-depth studies on the formulations with high IAR value and Fic value of illness categories will be helpful to improve health status of the people. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kabilan N.,Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R.Medical University | Murugesan M.,National Institute of Siddha
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2016

The main aim of the present research work is to evaluate the safety of the traditional siddha medicine Natural PooraParpam (NPP) and Synthetic PooraParpam (SPP) by determining its possible toxicity after acute and subacute administration in rodents. In short term acute toxicity study the drug NPP and SPP was administered in single doss of 1.28 mg / kg b.w (p.o). Potential drug toxicity related to C.N.S, A.N.S and C.V.S were observed up to 14 days. In sub-acute toxicity study the drug NPP and SPP was administered at three dose level such as low dose, middle dose and high dose of 1.15, 1.44 and 2.88 mg / kg b.w (p.o) for four weeks, 5ml of KarumbuVellam (Cane sugar)] mixed with water served as vehicle control group and saline treated group served as normal control. Results obtained from the acute and sub-acute study reveals that the drug NPP and SPP doesn't cause any significant change in behavior, mortality and other potential adverse effects on treated animals. Throughout the study period no sign of toxicity was registered. Further it was observed that NPP and SPP at all three dose level did not modify the weight index, food and water intake in treated animals. There is no significant change in hematological, biochemical and histopathological observation of animals treated with NPP and SPP at the dose of 1.15, 1.44 and 2.88 mg / kg b.w (p.o) when compare to control group animals. From the result it was concluded that both the formulation NPP and SPP offers wide margin of safety in tested rodents and further long tern usage of drugs will be considered as safe for the ailment of various disease.


Murugan R.,National Institute of Siddha | Vembu T.,Sri Sairam Siddha Medical College and Research Center | Kumarswamy M.,National Institute of Siddha
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2016

The study was aimed to profile the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of a herbo-metallic drug Arumuga Chendhuram (AC). AC was prepared classically and analyzed for elemental composition using X-ray Fluorescence. Acute oral toxicity study was done on female rats at AC 2 g/kg as single administration following OECD guideline 423. For sub acute toxicity study, AC was administered orally for 28 consecutive days suspended in vehicle (Honey + distilled water) to rats following OECD guideline 407. Four groups was allotted (10 rats/group), control received vehicle; the other received AC at 12, 24 & 48 mg/kg/day respectively. Mortality and abnormal clinical signs were observed. Haematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed using auto analyzer with standard kits and ANOVA-Dunnett test was performed for significant analyses. Gross necropsy and histopathology studies using H&E stain were done on major organs. Mercury and Lead were found more than the WHO permissible limits in XRF study. LD50 was found more than 2 g/kg. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect level of AC was seen at 24 mg/kg in 28 days of treatment. No abnormal findings were noted in high dose group organs. Administration of AC at its human therapeutic dose of 260 mg/kg in rat (24 mg/kg) is safe. © 2016 Ramamurthy Murugan et al.


Akila B.,National Institute of Siddha | Manickavasakam K.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The biological activity of the drug and its mechanism of action are obtained by conducting acute toxicity testing. Acute toxicity test is used in hazard identification and risk management of the drug. In this study, the acute and sub acute toxicity of Vedikara silasathu parpam(VSP) and Nerunjil kudineer(NK), the two siddha formulations given in combination for urinary tract infection was evaluvated in Wistar albino rats. VSP contains, Potassium nitrate, Sodium nitrate, Silajith and NK contains Tribulus terrestris, Crataeva magna, Zingiber officinale. In acute toxicity study, both VSP and NK was administered orally at the maximum dose of 2000mg/kg/p.o. The toxic symptoms of the animals were observed up to 14 days and the results showed that there was no adverse effects found in the general behavior and mortality. VSP and NK was tested once daily at the dose of 500mg/kg/p.o for 28days in sub acute toxicity study. On the 29 th day, the animals were sacrificed and the blood and biochemical parameters were measured. Vital organ's histopathalogical examination were studied further. When compared with the control group, the results of the test group did not showed any significant changes in food, water intake, body weight, liver and kidney function test and hematological parameters. Histopathalogical evidence of gross pathalogical changes were not showed in the vital organs. VSP and NK is safe for the treatment in urinary tract infection at the dose of 500mg/kg/p.o.


Meena R.,National Institute of Siddha | Ramaswamy R.S.,CCRS
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Existence of Siddha system of medicine can be traced to ancient times. It has survived the onslaught of various other systems of medicines proving its efficacy. Siddhars were experts in medicine preparations which cured innumerable diseases. Pharmacovigilance is defined as the science of detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse drug effects or any other possible drug related problems. Although the term pharmacovigilance is actually not featured in Siddha texts, it is vibrant throughout literature. This paper deals with the historical perspectives, adverse drug reactions in Siddha system, need for pharmacovigilance, challenges faced, pharmacovigilance of clinical trials, measures to improve pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines and future suggestions.


Hariharan S.,National Institute of Siddha | Suba V.,National institute of siddha | Murugesan M.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Efforts have been made to prove the safety of the traditional Siddha medicine, Kasha Gulanthaga Mathirai. Effects of Kasha Gulanthaga Mathirai in model organisms were not reported till date. This paper appraises a detail study of physio-chemical properties, phytochemical constituents and heavy metal contents of the selected drug [KGM]. The ICPOES reveals that the main metals present in the tablet are Mercury and Arsenic. HRSEM analysis has been used to study particle size shape and distribution. The acute and long term toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss albino mice and Wister albino rats as per WHO guidelines. Histo pathological studies, hematological and biochemical parameters were done to find out any metal toxicity. Toxicity studies reveal the dose mentioned in siddha text kundriyalavu (130mg) is the safety dose for human consumption.


Sudha Revathy S.,National Institute of Siddha | Murugesan M.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Indian systems of medicine are Siddha, Ayurveda and Unani. Among them, Siddha system of medicine is being practiced in southern parts in India. Siddha has its strong foundation of science laid by siddhars and other sages who aimed at attaining salvation and hence formulated medicines for a longer and healtier life span. Among the 4448 diseases mentioned by them, Kalladaippu (Urolithiasis) is one of the reasons for obstruction in the urinary system and hence producing low urinary output. Many medicines have been prescribed for this disease and Silasathu paavanai is one among them. The present study aims to analyze drug physico chemically and to explore its anti microbial activity. The drug Silasathu paavanai contains essential elements which are considered to be stone inhibitors and the aqueous extract has good anti microbial activity against E.coli which is the commonest urinary tract infection among patients with urolithiasis.

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