National Institute of Siddha

Chennai, India

National Institute of Siddha

Chennai, India
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Lavanya N.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

Free radicals are implicated for more than 80 diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cataract, rheumatism, and other auto immune disease like aging. etc. in treatment of these diseases antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance. Current research is now directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidant of plant origin. In Indian system of medicine Trigonella foenum graecum is an important medicinal plant and its leaves and a seed has been used in various ailments and as health tonic. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol (70%) extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (EETFG) was investigated for in vitro antioxidant assays which includes H-donor activity, nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide scavenging, reducing ability, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity by thiocyanate and phosphomolybdenum method, metal chelating, β-carotene bleaching, total peroxy radical assays. The pro oxidant activity was measured using bleomycin dependent DNA damage. Ex vivo models like lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte haemolysis were also studied. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyl toluene, α-tocopherol, curcumin, quercetin, and trolox. In all the methods the extract offered strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and total antioxidant activity in EETFG were determined as μg pyrocatechol, quercetin and α-tocopherol equivalent/ mg respectively. The extract did not exhibit any pro oxidant activity when compared with ascorbic acid. The results clearly indicate that EETFG is effective against free radical mediated diseases.


Narayanan N.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital | Suba V.,National Institute of Siddha | Bhaskar K.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2010

The sandwiched osmotic tablet system that could deliver Nifedipine and Metoprolol tartarate simultaneously for extended period of time was developed in order to reduce the problems associated with multidrug therapy of hypertension. This system composed of a middle push layer and attached drug layers of Nifedipine and Metoprolol. The advantage of the sandwiched osmotic tablet system over the commercialized push-pull osmotic tablet system is its simplicity of preparation, as the surface identification was avoided. Polyethylene oxide 600,000 and 8,000,000. g/mole were used as thickening agent of drug layer and the expandable hydrogel of push layer, respectively. It has been observed that amount of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and KCL of the drug and push layer had profound influence on Nifedipine and Metoprolol release. Further, the release of drugs was optimized by the size of the delivery orifice, level of plasticizer and membrane thickness. The optimal osmotic pump tablet was found to deliver both drugs at a rate of approximately zero order for up to 16. h independent of pH and agitational intensity, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the release media. The formulations were found to be stable after 3 months of accelerated stability studies. Prediction of steady-state levels showed the plasma concentrations of Nifedipine and Metoprolol to be within the desired range. Further sandwiched system had a good sustained effect in comparison with the conventional product. Hence the prototype design of the system could be applied to other combinations of drugs used for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Narayanan N.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital | Suba V.,National Institute of Siddha
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2011

Background: A system that can deliver multi-drug at a prolonged rate is very important for the treatment of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and heart disease. Controlled porosity osmotic pump tablet (CPOP) system was designed to deliver Nifedipine (NP) and Metoprolol (MP) in a controlled manner up to 12 h. It was prepared by incorporating drugs in the core and coated with various types (PVP, PEG-400 and HPMC) and levels (30, 40 and 50% w/w of polymer) of pore former at a weight gain of 8, 12 & 15%. Results: Formulation variables like type and level of pore former and percent weight gain of membrane was found to affect the drug release from the developed formulations. Drug release was inversely proportional to the membrane weight but directly related to the level of pore former. Burst strength of the exhausted shell was inversely proportional to the level of pore former, but directly affected by the membrane weight. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed the formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. Dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics. In vitro release kinetics was subjected to superposition method to predict in vivo performance of the developed formulation. Conclusion: The developed osmotic system is effective in the multi-drug therapy of hypertension by delivering both drugs in a controlled manner. © 2011 Kumaravelrajan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Savariraj Sahayam C.,SASTRA University | Brindha P.,SASTRA University | Logamanian M.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

In Traditional Indian systems of Medicine, numbers of plants are prescribed for the treatment of diabetes and to improve anti oxidant status. In persistent hyperglycemia oxidative stress has been found mainly due to an increased production of free radicals and sharp reduction of antioxidants defenses and the tissue antioxidant status leading to the development of diabetic complications. Hence treatment of diabetic patients with an antioxidant and anti diabetic plant drug will be beneficial in attenuating these complications. With these objectives in the present work a comparative evaluation was made of both anti diabetic and antioxidant potentials of salacia oblonga (SO), Salacia reticulate (SR) and Salacia chinensis (SC) and discussed. The anti oxidant efficacy was evaluated through different systems of assay such as Lipid peroxidation assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Reduce Glutathione assay. The Hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem of selected plants were found to possess different levels of antioxidant status. Anti diabetic efficacy was evaluated in the STS induced diabetic rats. However, considering all the assays it can be stated that SO exhibits better antioxidant activity and anti diabetic activity as compared to other two species screened.


Vetha Merlin Kumari H.,National Institute of Siddha | Manickavasakam K.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Worldwide most commonly observed cancer in human being is Oral cancer ranking sixth place and more than three lakhs people are annually affected. Oral cancer mainly involves the tissues of the tongue and Most common oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. The symptoms of tongue cancer are described in "Siddhar Aruvai Maruthuvam" text book. The symptoms mentioned in Siddha system are almost equivalent to symptoms described in modern medicine. India has world's highest incidence of oral cancer accounting 86 per cent of the global cases. Use of Tobacco and alcohol consumption are found to be source for more than 90 per cent of the oral cancer.The increasing incidences of cancer cases in the OPD & IPD of Ayothidass Pandithar Hospital at National Institute of Siddha is due to the increasing awareness of effect of Siddha medicine in the treatment of cancer. This paper focuses on one such OPD case that has been treated from 2005 onwards. This presentation on clinical profile, prognosis and outcome of the patient will throw more light on devising the siddha system of clinical management in tongue cancer.


Chitra B.,National Institute of Siddha | Ramaswamy R.S.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The holistic approach in treating dermatological problems like Eczema and allergic disorders in Siddha has earned higher confidence in common people. KARUNCHEERAGA CHURANAM (KCC), a siddha medicine is one such formulation indicated for eczema and allergic disorder. The evidence based research among these formulations will focus them in scientific arena. The aim of the study is to explore the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-histamine action of the test drug KCC. Acute anti-inflammatory study was done by hind paw method in albino rats. It was tested in 2 different doses. The chronic anti-inflammatory activity was studied in albino rats by Cotton pellets implantation (granuloma) method. The analgesic study was done by the tail-flick method in albino rats. The anti-histamine effect of the test drug was done in the isolated ileum of the guinea pig. The test drug is prepared by mixing 5gm of the test drug KCC with 50ml water. The chemical analysis of the drug revealed that it has the analyzable amount of calcium and ferrous iron. Pharmacologically test drug KCC has significant anti-histamine action. It has moderate analgesic action and moderate anti-inflammatory action in both acute and chronic studies. The test drug KCC has significant efficacy of anti-allergic property and it can be used in eczema and urticaria rashes.


Vetha Merlin Kumari H.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

India has a long history and strong base of traditional system of medicine.Siddha medicine has to increase its level of preparedness to face a new era of globalisation, information, exploration, and consumer awareness. In siddhar's classification, mineral objects are four kinds. Among these salts (Karasaram) are twenty five in numbers. In which Appalakaram is one of the natural salt. In siddha system of medicine the signs and symptoms of Azhal Keel Vaayu Noi are identical with osteoarthritis in modern medicine. Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. To reduce this inflammation the single drug appalakaram was taken for evaluation of acute anti-inflammation by carageenan induced rat hind paw oedema method and chronic inflammation by cotton pellet granuloma method. In these pharmacological evaluations, the drug appalakaram possess mild acute and good chronic anti-inflammatory effect. The study methods, observation and the data of the results will be presented and discussed.


Kabilan N.,Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R.Medical University | Murugesan M.,National Institute of Siddha
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2016

The main aim of the present research work is to evaluate the safety of the traditional siddha medicine Natural PooraParpam (NPP) and Synthetic PooraParpam (SPP) by determining its possible toxicity after acute and subacute administration in rodents. In short term acute toxicity study the drug NPP and SPP was administered in single doss of 1.28 mg / kg b.w (p.o). Potential drug toxicity related to C.N.S, A.N.S and C.V.S were observed up to 14 days. In sub-acute toxicity study the drug NPP and SPP was administered at three dose level such as low dose, middle dose and high dose of 1.15, 1.44 and 2.88 mg / kg b.w (p.o) for four weeks, 5ml of KarumbuVellam (Cane sugar)] mixed with water served as vehicle control group and saline treated group served as normal control. Results obtained from the acute and sub-acute study reveals that the drug NPP and SPP doesn't cause any significant change in behavior, mortality and other potential adverse effects on treated animals. Throughout the study period no sign of toxicity was registered. Further it was observed that NPP and SPP at all three dose level did not modify the weight index, food and water intake in treated animals. There is no significant change in hematological, biochemical and histopathological observation of animals treated with NPP and SPP at the dose of 1.15, 1.44 and 2.88 mg / kg b.w (p.o) when compare to control group animals. From the result it was concluded that both the formulation NPP and SPP offers wide margin of safety in tested rodents and further long tern usage of drugs will be considered as safe for the ailment of various disease.


Akila B.,National Institute of Siddha | Manickavasakam K.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The biological activity of the drug and its mechanism of action are obtained by conducting acute toxicity testing. Acute toxicity test is used in hazard identification and risk management of the drug. In this study, the acute and sub acute toxicity of Vedikara silasathu parpam(VSP) and Nerunjil kudineer(NK), the two siddha formulations given in combination for urinary tract infection was evaluvated in Wistar albino rats. VSP contains, Potassium nitrate, Sodium nitrate, Silajith and NK contains Tribulus terrestris, Crataeva magna, Zingiber officinale. In acute toxicity study, both VSP and NK was administered orally at the maximum dose of 2000mg/kg/p.o. The toxic symptoms of the animals were observed up to 14 days and the results showed that there was no adverse effects found in the general behavior and mortality. VSP and NK was tested once daily at the dose of 500mg/kg/p.o for 28days in sub acute toxicity study. On the 29 th day, the animals were sacrificed and the blood and biochemical parameters were measured. Vital organ's histopathalogical examination were studied further. When compared with the control group, the results of the test group did not showed any significant changes in food, water intake, body weight, liver and kidney function test and hematological parameters. Histopathalogical evidence of gross pathalogical changes were not showed in the vital organs. VSP and NK is safe for the treatment in urinary tract infection at the dose of 500mg/kg/p.o.


Sudha Revathy S.,National Institute of Siddha | Murugesan M.,National Institute of Siddha
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Indian systems of medicine are Siddha, Ayurveda and Unani. Among them, Siddha system of medicine is being practiced in southern parts in India. Siddha has its strong foundation of science laid by siddhars and other sages who aimed at attaining salvation and hence formulated medicines for a longer and healtier life span. Among the 4448 diseases mentioned by them, Kalladaippu (Urolithiasis) is one of the reasons for obstruction in the urinary system and hence producing low urinary output. Many medicines have been prescribed for this disease and Silasathu paavanai is one among them. The present study aims to analyze drug physico chemically and to explore its anti microbial activity. The drug Silasathu paavanai contains essential elements which are considered to be stone inhibitors and the aqueous extract has good anti microbial activity against E.coli which is the commonest urinary tract infection among patients with urolithiasis.

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