National Institute of Scientific Investigation

Seoul, South Korea

National Institute of Scientific Investigation

Seoul, South Korea
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Horacek M.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Min J.-S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Heo S.-C.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Soja G.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ 2H values between -94 and -79‰, for δ 13C -27.9 to -23.7‰ and for δ 15N 1.3-5.4‰ for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ 2H ratios between -91 and -69‰, δ 13C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4‰ and δ 15N ratios between -2.4 and +7‰. Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ 2H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Horacek M.,Technology GmbH | Min J.-S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Beef samples from Korea and from some of the main beef exporting countries (USA, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand) were analysed for carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the defatted dried matter. Results showed that the samples from each country investigated could be assigned to a typical isotope signature and can be separated from each other. The main discriminating factors were δ13C and δ2H, which mainly reflect feeding of C3 and C4-plants and the isotopic composition of the water, respectively, consumed by the cattle. Australian beef showed the largest variation in its isotopic signature, suggesting heterogeneous rearing conditions. By contrast, for beef from New Zealand, Mexico, USA and Korea, each batch had typical signatures with a smaller variability. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oh S.M.,Hoseo University | Kim H.R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Park Y.J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee S.Y.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Chung K.H.,Sungkyunkwan University
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (<2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter particles) collected from the traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm3-50μg/cm3). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Baeck S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Han E.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Chung H.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Pyo M.,Sookmyung Womens University
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n=24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n=7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91. ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0. ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75. ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90. ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p<0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p>0.05). © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Lee S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Choi H.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Kim E.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Chung H.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Chung K.H.,Sungkyunkwan University
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2010

The measurement uncertainty (MU) of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) was estimated in an authentic urine sample with a relatively low concentration of MA and AP using the bottom-up approach. A cause and effect diagram was deduced; the amount of MA or AP in the sample, the volume of the sample, method precision, and sample effect were considered uncertainty sources. The concentrations of MA and AP in the urine sample with their expanded uncertainties were 340.5 ± 33.2 ng/mL and 113.4 ± 15.4 ng/mL, respectively, which means 9.7% and 13.6% of the concentration gave an estimated expanded uncertainty, respectively. The largest uncertainty originated from sample effect and method precision in MA and AP, respectively, but the uncertainty of the volume of the sample was minimal in both. The MU needs to be determined during the method validation process to assess test reliability. Moreover, the identification of the largest and/or smallest uncertainty source can help improve experimental protocols.

Hee Kim S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Hee Kim S.,Seoul National University | Soo Han M.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | Kim W.,Dankook University | Kim W.,Seoul National University
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2010

The distribution of Y-chromosomal variation from the 12 Y-SNP and 17 Y-STR markers was determined in six major provinces (Seoul-Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungcheong, Jeolla, Gyeongsang, and Jeju) to evaluate these populations' possible genetic structure and differentiation in Korea. As part of the present study, a 10-plex SNaPshot assay and two singleplex SNaPshot assays were developed. Based on the result of 12 Y-SNP markers (M9, M45, M89, M119, M122, M174,M175, M214, RPS4Y, P31, SRY465, and 47z), almost 78.9% of tested samples belonged to haplogroup O-M175 (including its subhaplogroups O3-M122: 44.3%, O2b*- SRY465: 22.5%, O2b1-47z: 8.7%), and 12.6% of the tested samples belonged to haplogroup C-RPS4Y. A total of 475 haplotypes were identified using 17 Y-STR markers included in the Yfiler kit, among which 452 (95.2%) were individualspecific. The overall haplotype diversity for the 17 Y-STR loci was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9387. Pairwise genetic distances and AMOVA of the studied Korean provinces reflected no patrilineal substructure in Korea, except for Jeju Island. Thus, this survey shows that the present data of Korean individuals could be helpful to establish a comprehensive forensic reference database for frequency estimation. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Park S.-J.,Korea University | Chae S.-W.,Korea University | Kim E.-S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation
International Journal of Automotive Technology | Year: 2010

Neck fracture is a major cause of death in traffic accidents. This pattern of injury normally occurs in a frontal collision or overturn of a vehicle. This study investigates the case of a neck fracture from a low-speed collision. In the examined case, the passenger in the front seat of the car fractured his neck and died. He did not have his seatbelt on when the vehicle slipped on a frozen road surface on a downward slope of a hill and impacted into the shoulder of the road at low speed. In this type of collision, an occupant's body will be impacted by the windshield or other interior trim of the car. However, in this case, rather unusually, neither body tissue nor fiber remained although the collision involved a broken windshield. Thus, the reason for the passenger death was unidentified. This study applied the computer simulation package Madymo for analyzing the accident. The result of the simulation was that the passenger, who did not wear a seatbelt, moved forward due to inertia. The upper part of the passenger then rotated and lifted when the knee contacted with the dashboard. By evaluating the structural deformation of the vehicle at the front, we deduced that the collision velocity was 30 km/h. Through a computational experiment that was undertaken using Madymo 7.0, NIC was estimated to be 240 m2/s2. This result far exceeded the threshold for neck injuries. In particular, in comparison with whiplash injuries, when the passenger's head directly impacts the roof following a rear-end collision, the bending moment through hyperextension of the neck is greatly increased. In this study, we concluded that the manner of death was the hyperextension of the neck, as the passenger's head contacted the roof from underneath. © 2010 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Park J.,Yonsei University | Lim D.-H.,Yonsei University | Lim H.-J.,Yonsei University | Kwon T.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

The immune-response of macrophages is an important area of investigation since it represents the major pathway by which early-stage defense barriers are established in skin, lungs, and mucosal systems to counteract foreign objects. In this study, we have examined the size-dependent inflammatory and toxicological effects of nanostructured silver particles (nano-Ag) on macrophage immune cells. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kim E.S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, A | Year: 2010

Forensic engineering is the area of expertise of people qualified to serve as engineering experts in courts of law or during arbitration proceedings. An aerial-lifter can lift and carry load, including people, using power. Recently, failure of aerial-lifter internal parts while working and sweeping causing injuries and damage to property almost always generates conflict between the automaker and customer. Hence, the investigation of such events generally involves an engineering analysis. One of the possible reasons for accidents, such as a vehicle catching fire is the failure of oil pressure machine and the supporting pin. The results of formal inspections and engineering tests can reveal the cause for the failure of the mechanical parts. Therefore, the failure mechanism is analyzed by adopting fractography methods and by applying an instrumented indentation technique to compare the material properties of the reference part with those of the malfunctioning part. © 2010 The Korean society ot Mechanical Engineers.

Kim E.S.,National Institute of Scientific Investigation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, A | Year: 2011

Forensic Engineering is the art and science of professionals qualified to serve as engineering experts in courts of law or in arbitration proceedings. Buses using compressed natural gas (CNG) trend to be extended in use internationally as optimal counterplan for reducing discharge gas of light oil due to high concern about environment. However, CNG buses have to be equipped with composite pressure vessels (CPVs); since the CPVs contain compressed natural gas, the risks in the case of accident is very high. Hence, the investigation of such accidents is usually associated with engineering analysis. Among the possible reasons for such CNG explosion accidents is vehicle fire and vessel fracture. By conducting formal inspection and engineering tests, in this study, the cause of vessel explosion is investigated by analyzing the failure mechanism by fractography and by comparing the material properties of a reference part with those of a problem part by adopting instrumented indentation technique. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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