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Panda A.,Mkcg Medical College | Bhagat A.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2013

Introduction: Drug promotional literature distributed by pharmaceutical companies is an important source of prescribing information to the doctor and they attempt to raise awareness about a new drug (1). Ideally, the drug promotional literature should provide relevant research findings regarding the drug. Aim: To evaluate the quality, adequacy and genuineness of information provided by drug promotional literature distributed by pharmaceutical companies in India. Materials and Methods: 735 drug promotional literatures (leaflets) were collected from the outpatient Department of M.K.C.G Medical College, Berhampur, Odisha, India and from 10 busy physicians of Berhampur town from their private clinics. They were analyzed using a pre-tested and pre-validated checklist with nine parameters representing the quantitative analysis methods. The WHO criterion for ethical medicinal drug promotion was used for the analysis of the adequacy of coverage. The genuineness of therapeutic claims made in promotional literature was verified by accessing standard literature through internet databases like PubMed, Medline and Cochrane reviews, standard text books and peer reviewed journals. Mention of the information regarding the cost of the drug in the promotional literature was also evaluated. Results: Out of the 735 leaflets of drug promotional literature collected the quantitative research methods were mentioned in 83 (11.29%,C.I9.0% to 13.58%). None ofthe drug promotional literature fulfilled all the 11 WHO criteria for drug promotional literature. The brand name was mentioned in all the drug promotional literature whereas generic name was found in 98.77%. 63.8% of the leaflets satisfied the six WHO criteria namely, the brand name, generic name, dosage form, approved therapeutic use, name and address of the manufacturer and reference to scientific literature as appropriate. 1525 claims were made in 735 drug promotional literature (2.07 per literature). 76.33% claims were supported with scientific references. 67% references were available on PubMed, Medline, Cochrane reviews, standard text books and peer reviewed journals. Only 31% of the claims were authentic. Conclusion: Drug promotional literatures analyzed through this study were inadequate in terms of their quality, adequacy and genuineness of coverage. Hence, it can be concluded that majority of the drug promotional literature may not help rational prescribing, but only promote the drug and have commercial interests. They overlook the set guidelines related to drug promotional literature.


Bunday B.,SEMATECH | Germer T.A.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Vartanian V.,SEMATECH | Cordes A.,SEMATECH | Cepler A.,SEMATECH
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper will examine the future for critical dimension (CD) metrology. First, we will present the extensive list of applications for which CD metrology solutions are needed, showing commonalities and differences among the various applications. We will then report on the expected technical limits of the metrology solutions currently being investigated by SEMATECH and others in the industry to address the metrology challenges of future nodes, including conventional CD scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM) and optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology and new potential solutions such as He-ion microscopy (HeIM, sometimes elsewhere referred to as HIM), CD atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM), CD small-angle x-ray scattering (CD-SAXS), high-voltage scanning electron microscopy (HV-SEM), and other types. A technical gap analysis matrix will then be demonstrated, showing the current state of understanding of the future of the CD metrology space. © 2013 SPIE.


Rae A.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Stosch R.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Klapetek P.,Czech Metrology Institute | Hight Walker A.R.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Roy D.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom
Methods | Year: 2014

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the elucidation of qualitative and quantitative information from biological systems and has huge potential in areas such as biotechnologies, drug discovery, agro-chemical research and clinical diagnostics. This report summarises the principal Raman techniques applied to biomedical systems and discusses the challenges that exist to the wide spread adoption of Raman spectroscopy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Mishra D.K.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University | Mohapatra J.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University | Sharma M.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Sharma M.K.,Amity University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2013

A novel thermal plasma in-flight technique has been adopted to synthesize nanocrystalline ZnO and carbon doped nanocrystalline ZnO matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on these samples show the average particle sizes to be around 32 nm for ZnO and for carbon doped ZnO. An enhancement of saturation magnetization in nanosized carbon doped ZnO matrix by a factor of 3.8 has been found in comparison to ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. Raman measurement clearly indicates the presence of Zn-C complexes surrounded by ZnO matrix in carbon doped ZnO. This indicates that the ferromagnetic signature in carbon doped ZnO arises from the creation of defects or the development of oxy-carbon clusters, in the carbon doped ZnO system. Theoretical studies based on density functional theory also support the experimental analyses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lenka T.R.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Panda A.K.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

In this paper, there is an attempt to present the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) transport characteristics of AlxGa1-xN/(AlN)/ GaN-based High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) using a self-consistent numerical method for calculating the conduction-band profile and subband structure. The subband calculations take into account the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization effects and the Hartree and exchange-correlation interaction. Here the dependency of conduction band profile, subband energies, 2DEG sheet concentration and sheet resistance on various Al mole fractions of AlxGa1-xN barrier layer are presented by incorporating simulation as well as available experimental data. Introduction of very thin binary AlN layer at the heterojunction of AlxGa1-xN/GaN resulting high mobility at high sheet charge densities by increasing the effective ΔEc,eff and decreasing alloy disorder scattering. Devices based on this structure exhibit good DC and RF performance as an increase of nsμn. Owing to high 2DEG density (n s), the proposed device leads to operate in microwave and millimeter wave applications. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.


Lenka T.R.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Panda A.K.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics | Year: 2011

A new High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) model is proposed in this paper by introducing a thin A1N layer in nanoscale range into the conventional Al 0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN-based HEMT keeping the Al content of 30%. The A1N layer is very sensitive towards the development of polarization charges at the hetero interface and results into high 2DEG density (n s). The role of A1N layer is essentially very much suitable in order to reduce various scattering exist at the hetero interface of the conventional GaN based devices. The change of various structural parameters such as Al mole fraction of Al xGa 1-xN from 0.25 to 0.45, thickness of AlGaN cap layer, thickness of A1N channel layer, doping concentrations give rise to a significant change in the 2DEG transport and C∼V characteristics of the device and its detail discussion are presented in this paper. The 2DEG density with the variation of Al xGa 1-xN thickness and Al mole fraction (x) are in good agreement with the experimental results from the literature.


Palai G.,Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement GITA | Tripathy S.K.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Optics Communications | Year: 2012

A novel method to measure the concentration of sugar, sodium chloride and alcohol, in their aqueous solution by using two dimensional photonic crystal structures is presented. This measurement is very accurate as the principle is based on variation of photonic band gap with respect to concentration. Photonic band gap here is computed using plane wave expansion method. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lenka T.R.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Panda A.K.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Pramana - Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper, a new gate-recessed AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on SiC substrate is proposed and its DC as well as microwave characteristics are discussed for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers using technology computer aided design (TCAD). The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) transport properties are discussed by solving Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently resulting in various subbands having electron eigenvalues. From DC characteristics, the saturation drain currents are measured to be 600 mA/mm and 550 mA/mm for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers respectively. Apart from DC, small-signal AC analysis has been done using two-port network for various microwave parameters. The extrinsic transconductance parameters are measured to be 131.7 mS/mm at a gate voltage of V gs = -0.35 V and 114.6 mS/mm at a gate voltage of V gs = -0.4 V for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers respectively. The current gain cut-off frequencies (f t) are measured to be 27.1 GHz and 23.97 GHz in unit-gain-point method at a gate voltage of -0.4 V for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers respectively. Similarly, the power gain cut-off frequencies ( f max) are measured to be 41 GHz and 38.5 GHz in unit-gain-point method at a gate voltage of -0.1 V for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers respectively. Furthermore, the maximum frequency of oscillation or unit power gain (MUG = 1) cut-off frequencies for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers are measured to be 32 GHz and 28 GHz respectively from MUG curves and the unit current gain, |h 21| = 1 cut-off frequencies are measured to be 140 GHz and 75 GHz for Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 passivation layers respectively from the abs |h 21| curves. HEMT with Si 3N 4 passivation layer gives better results than HEMT with SiO 2 passivation layer. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Palai G.,Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement GITA | Tripathy S.K.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Sahu T.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
Optik | Year: 2014

We propose a novel technique to measure the concentration of sucrose in PAm-hydrogel sucrose solution using two dimensional photonic crystal structures consists of air holes. PAm-hydrogel is an organic hydrogels, which is used as biomedical applications. The principle of measurement is based on the linear variation of photonic band gap with the change of dielectric constant of the solution infiltrated in air holes of photonic crystal structure. Plane wave expansion method is used to find the band gap and linear variation (R 2 = 0.9949) of photonic band gap with respect to sucrose concentration is observed. Besides this, an excellent linear variation (R 2 = 0.9949) of transmitted intensity of light with respect to sucrose concentration is also seen. Since the simulation is based on optical principle, it gives accurate results. This suggests the possible use of 2-D photonic crystal structure as a sucrose sensor. Experimental procedure for measuring the concentration of sucrose is also mentioned. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Khuntia S.R.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST | Panda S.,National Institute of Science and Technology NIST
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

In this paper, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied to design a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)-based controller for improvement of transient stability. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of fuzzy controller and quick response and adaptability nature of ANN. The ANFIS structures were trained using the generated database by fuzzy controller of SSSC. It is observed that the proposed SSSC controller improves greatly the voltage profile of the system under severe disturbances. The results prove that the proposed SSSC-based ANFIS controller is found to be robust to fault location and change in operating conditions. Further, the results obtained are compared with the conventional lead-lag controllers for SSSC. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

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