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Montes-Cortes D.H.,Mexican Institute for Social Security | Hicks J.J.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosio Villegas
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress damage to biomolecules has been implicated in several diseases including diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress in whole blood (WB) from diabetic patients (n = 60) on recombinant human insulin. Insulin was incubated with WB obtained from diabetic patients (DP) who had hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL) or from 41 healthy volunteers (HV). Whole blood of DP, unlike WB of HV, induced higher values of formazan (142%), dityrosines (279%), and carbonyls (58%) in the insulin residues. Interestingly, the insulin modified by WB of DP showed less hypoglycemic activity in rat (30%) in comparison with insulin incubated with WB of HV. The incubation of insulin in WB from DP induces chemical changes in insulin and a decrease in its biological activity, events that might be associated with the high levels of oxidative stress markers found in the plasma of these patients. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Jimenez-Chobillon M.-A.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosio Villegas | Lopez-Oliver R.-D.,Ophtalmology Service
European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: Present our experience with orbital decompression using an endoscopic transnasal approach and test whether preservation of an anteroposterior periorbital strip overlying the medial rectus muscle can reduce the incidence of postoperative diplopia. Patient and methods: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted on 16 patients with Graves ophthalmopathy operated on with orbital decompression between 2004 and 2009. Results: Twelve women and four men (mean age, 34.6 years), a total of 30 orbits, were operated. A medial periorbital strip along the medial rectus muscle was preserved in 13 patients. A single case (7.7%) presented postoperative diplopia. The mean reduction of proptosis was 4.3 mm. Conclusions: The endoscopic transnasal approach provides comparable results to those obtained with other techniques. The incidence of postoperative diplopia seems to decrease when an anteroposterior periorbital periosteal strip is preserved along the medial rectus muscle. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Arrieta O.,National Cancer Institute of Mexico | Arrieta O.,Experimental Oncology Laboratory | Ramirez-Tirado L.-A.,Experimental Oncology Laboratory | Baez-Saldana R.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosio Villegas | And 3 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2015

Objective: Sixteen percent of US population is Hispanic, mostly Mexican. Recently, two independent American reports demonstrated a higher overall survival (OS) in Hispanic populations compared with non-Hispanic-white populations (NHW) with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even when most Hispanic patients are diagnosed at advanced disease stages and have lower income status. We analyzed the clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics as well as outcomes in a cohort of NSCLC Hispanic patients from the National Cancer Institute of Mexico that could explain this "Hispanic Paradox". Material and methods: A cohort of 1260 consecutive NSCLC patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico from 2007 to 2014 was analyzed. Their clinical-pathological characteristics, the presence of EGFR and KRAS mutations and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: Patients presented with disease stages II, IIIa, IIIb and IV at rates of 0.6, 4.8, 18.4 and 76.3%, respectively. NSCLC was associated with smoking in only 56.5% of the patients (76.7% of male vs. 33.0% of female patients). Wood smoke exposure (WSE) was associated with 37.2% of the cases (27.3% in men vs. 48.8% in women). The frequency of EGFR mutations was 27.0% (18.5% in males vs. 36.9% in females, p <. 0.001) and the frequency for KRAS mutations was 10.5% (10.3% men vs. 10.1% in women p = 0.939). The median OS for all patients was 23.0 [95% CI 19.4-26.2], whereas for patients at stage IV, it was 18.5 months [95% CI 15.2-21.8]. The independent factors associated with the OS were the ECOG, disease stage, EGFR and KRAS mutation status. Conclusion: The high frequency of EGFR mutations and low frequency of KRAS mutations in Hispanic populations and different prevalence in lung cancer-related-developing risk factors compared with Caucasian populations, such as the lower frequency of smoking exposure and higher WSE, particularly in women, might explain the prognosis differences between foreign-born-Hispanics, US-born-Hispanics and NHWs. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Chavez-Galan L.,University of Geneva | Chavez-Galan L.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosio Villegas | Olleros M.L.,University of Geneva | Vesin D.,University of Geneva | Garcia I.,University of Geneva
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

Monocytes are considered to be precursor cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system, and macrophages are one of the leading members of this cellular system. Macrophages play highly diverse roles in maintaining an organism's integrity by either directly participating in pathogen elimination or repairing tissue under sterile inflammatory conditions. There are different subpopulations of macrophages and each one has its own characteristics and functions. In this review, we summarize present knowledge on the polarization of macrophages that allows the generation of subpopulations called classically activated macrophages or M1 and alternative activated macrophages or M2. Furthermore, there are macrophages that their origin and characterization still remain unclear but have been involved as main players in some human pathologies. Thus, we also review three other categories of macrophages: tumor-associated macrophages, CD169+ macrophages, and the recently named TCR+ macrophages. Based on the literature, we provide information on the molecular characterization of these macrophage subpopulations and their specific involvement in several human pathologies such as cancer, infectious diseases, obesity, and asthma. The refined characterization of the macrophage subpopulations can be useful in designing new strategies, supplementing those already established for the treatment of diseases using macrophages as a therapeutic target. © 2015 Chávez-Galán, Olleros, Vesin and Garcia. Source


Thannickal V.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Murthy M.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Balch W.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Chandel N.S.,Northwestern University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several oral symposiums and poster sessions at the annual ATSmeeting. In this article, we used the input gathered at the conference to develop a broad framework and perspective to stimulate basic, clinical, and translational research to understand how the aging process contributes to the onset and/or progression of lung diseases. A consistent theme that emerged from the conference was the need to apply novel, systems-based approaches to integrate a growing body of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data and elucidate the relationship between biologic hallmarks of aging, altered lung function, and increased susceptibility to lung diseases in the older population. The challenge remains to causally link the molecular and cellular changes of aging with age-related changes in lung physiology and disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to stimulate further research to identify new strategies to prevent or treat age-related lung disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

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