National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER

Mexico City, Mexico

National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER

Mexico City, Mexico
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Rincon E.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Rincon E.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Gharbi S.I.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Santos-Mendoza T.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Merida I.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2012

Diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are lipids with unique functions as metabolic intermediates, basic membrane constituents, and second-signal components. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGK) regulate the levels of these two lipids, catalyzing the interconversion of one to the other. The DGK family of enzymes is composed of 10 isoforms, grouped into five subfamilies based on the presence of distinct regulatory domains. From its initial characterization as a type IV DGK to the generation of mouse models showing its importance in cardiac dysfunction and immune pathologies, diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) has proved an excellent example of the critical role of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the control of cell responses. Although the mechanism that regulates this enzyme is not well known, many studies demonstrate its subtle regulation and its strategic function in specific signaling and as part of adaptor protein complexes. These data suggest that DGKζ offers new opportunities for therapeutic manipulation of lipid metabolism. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Guani-Guerra E.,Hospital Regional Of Alta Especialidad Del Bajio | Santos-Mendoza T.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Lugo-Reyes S.O.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Teran L.M.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionarily conserved molecules involved in the defense mechanisms of a wide range of organisms. Produced in bacteria, insects, plants and vertebrates, AMPs protect against a broad array of infectious agents. In mammals these peptides protect against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and certain parasites. Recently, novel biologic effects of AMPs have been documented such as endotoxin neutralization, chemotactic and immunomodulating activities, induction of angiogenesis and wound repair. Thus these ancestral molecules are crucial components of the innate immune system and attractive candidates for novel therapeutic approaches. This review focuses on cathelicin and defensins, the most documented human AMPs, and discusses their antimicrobial activity and pleiotropic immunomodulating effects on inflammatory and infectious diseases. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gonzalez Y.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Herrera M.T.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Juarez E.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Salazar-Lezama M.A.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Alveolar resident memory T cells (TRM ) comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3+ CD161+ T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3+CD161+ T cells in the bronchoalveolar space under normal conditions has not been reported. Bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) from healthy volunteers were evaluated and found that 8.6% (range 2.5%-21%) of these cells were CD3+ T lymphocytes. Within the CD3+ population, 4.6% of the cells (2.1-11.3) expressed CD161 on the cell surface, and 74.2% of the CD161+ CD3+ T cells expressed CD45RO. The number of CD3+CD161+ T cells was significantly lower in the bronchoalveolar space than in the blood (4.6% of BACs vs 8.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); P<0.05). We also found that 2.17% of CD4+ T lymphocytes and 1.52% of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed CD161. Twenty-two percent of the alveolar CD3+ CD161+ T lymphocytes produced cytokines upon stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin, and significantly more interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was produced compared with other cytokines (P = 0.05). Most alveolar CD3+CD161+ T cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IFN-γ simultaneously, and the percentage of these cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD3+ CD161- T cells. Moreover, the percentage of alveolar CD3+CD161+ T lymphocytes that produced IFN-γ/IL-17 was significantly higher than those in the peripheral blood (p<0.05). In conclusion, Th1/Th17-CD3+CD161+TRM could contribute to compartment-specific immune responses in the lung. © 2015 Gonzalez et al.


Ramirez H.,Institute of Agrobiotechnology | Ramirez H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Glaria I.,Institute of Agrobiotechnology | Andres X.D.,Institute of Agrobiotechnology | And 9 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

Nucleotide sequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were determined in sheep and goats, including progeny of imported animals, on a farm in Mexico. On the basis of gag-pol, pol, env and LTR sequences, SRLVs were assigned to the B1 subgroup, which comprises caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like prototype sequences mainly from goats. In comparison with CAEV. -like env sequences of American and French origin, two putative recombination events were identified within the V3-V4 and V4-V5 regions of the env gene of a full length SRLV sequence (FESC-752) derived from a goat on the farm. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Perez-Padilla R.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Wehrmeister F.C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Celli B.R.,Harvard University | Lopez-Varela M.V.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

QUESTION:A 6-second spirometry test is easier than full exhalations. We compared the reliability of the ratio of the Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/Forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) to the ratio of the FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) for the detection of airway obstruction.METHODS:The PLATINO population-based survey in individuals aged 40 years and over designed to estimate the prevalence of post-Bronchodilator airway obstruction repeated for the same study participants after 5-9 years in three Latin-American cities.RESULTS:Using the FEV1/FVC


Guani-Guerra E.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Guani-Guerra E.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Negrete-Garcia M.C.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Montes-Vizuet R.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2011

Background and Aims: The airway epithelium produces antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that prevent colonization of host tissues by a wide range of pathogens. Human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) is one of the most well-documented AMPs in humans. Several bacterial products can induce production of this peptide. Bacterial immunostimulants containing bacterial lysates have long been used in the treatment of respiratory infections, but their effects on hBD-2 release have not been investigated. We undertook this study to induce production of hBD-2 after stimulation of the nasal mucosa with bacterial lysates. Methods: A nasal lavage (NL) was performed in 12 healthy volunteers under basal conditions and after a nasal challenge with separate and subsequent stimuli with either bacterial lysates (20 million), cholecalciferol (400 IU), or sham-challenge with glycerol plus isotonic saline solution. Immunohistochemistry was performed in nasal biopsies 48 h after stimulation with bacterial lysates to identify the presence of hBD-2. Results: Increased levels of hBD-2 (4668.99 ± 2829.33 pg/mL) were measured with ELISA in NL fluids following bacterial challenge. However, hBD-2 concentrations were below the limit of detection in NL fluids at baseline and after the administration of cholecalciferol or the sham-challenge. Through immunohistochemistry, hBD-2 was predominantly localized to the epithelium. Conclusions: hBD-2 can be induced in the nasal mucosa after administration of bacterial lysates. Stimulation of the innate immune system to produce hBD-2 could be used to prevent or even treat infections caused by respiratory pathogens. © 2011 IMSS.


Gallegos-Solorzano M.C.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Perez-Padilla R.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | Hernandez-Zenteno R.J.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Rationale: Treatment of severe asthma may be difficult despite the use of several medications including parenteral corticosteroids. Intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is one ancillary drug for severe crisis; its inhaled use is controversial. Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of inhaled MgSO4 compared to placebo in improving lung function, oxygen saturation, and reducing hospital admission as an adjunct to standard treatment in severe asthma crisis. Patients and methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial with asthmatic patients >18 years of age with asthmatic crisis and FEV1<60% of predicted (%p). All subjects received 125mg of IV methylprednisolone followed by nebulization with the combination of albuterol (7.5mg) and ipratropium bromide (1.5mg) diluted in 3ml of isotonic saline solution (as placebo) or 3ml (333mg) of MgSO4. After 90min, subjects with FEV1<60%p or SpO2<88% or persistent symptoms were admitted to the emergency department (ED). Results: We included 30 patients per group who were similar at baseline. The MgSO4 group showed higher post-bronchodilator (post-BD) FEV1%p (69±13 vs. 61±12, p<0.014) and SpO2 (92±4 vs. 88±5%, p<0.006) than the placebo group. Fewer treated patients were admitted to the ED (5 vs. 13) (p<0.047), with relative risk (RR) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.079-0.870). Conclusions: Adding inhaled MgSO4 treatment to standard therapy in severe asthma crisis improves FEV1%p and SpO2 post-BD and reduces the rate of ED admissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute and National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents.A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents years completed at school were used as proxies of SES.Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone.Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age.


PubMed | National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

A 6-second spirometry test is easier than full exhalations. We compared the reliability of the ratio of the Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/Forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) to the ratio of the FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) for the detection of airway obstruction.The PLATINO population-based survey in individuals aged 40 years and over designed to estimate the prevalence of post-Bronchodilator airway obstruction repeated for the same study participants after 5-9 years in three Latin-American cities.Using the FEV1/FVC


PubMed | National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Alveolar resident memory T cells (T(RM)) comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3(+)CD161(+) T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells in the bronchoalveolar space under normal conditions has not been reported. Bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) from healthy volunteers were evaluated and found that 8.6% (range 2.5%-21%) of these cells were CD3(+) T lymphocytes. Within the CD3(+) population, 4.6% of the cells (2.1-11.3) expressed CD161 on the cell surface, and 74.2% of the CD161(+)CD3(+) T cells expressed CD45RO. The number of CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells was significantly lower in the bronchoalveolar space than in the blood (4.6% of BACs vs 8.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); P<0.05). We also found that 2.17% of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and 1.52% of CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressed CD161. Twenty-two percent of the alveolar CD3(+)CD161(+) T lymphocytes produced cytokines upon stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin, and significantly more interferon gamma (IFN-) was produced compared with other cytokines (P = 0.05). Most alveolar CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IFN- simultaneously, and the percentage of these cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD3(+)CD161- T cells. Moreover, the percentage of alveolar CD3(+)CD161(+) T lymphocytes that produced IFN-/IL-17 was significantly higher than those in the peripheral blood (p<0.05). In conclusion, Th1/Th17-CD3(+)CD161(+) TRM could contribute to compartment-specific immune responses in the lung.

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