Shambhu V.B.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2016
Production of jute, which is the main cash crop in eastern part of India, requires optimization of energy at all stages of production. The aim of this study was to examine direct and indirect resources of input energy in jut production. The study was conducted in West Bengal using a pre-tested questionnaire, 125 farmers were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The result revealed that Jute is mainly grown by marginal farmers (<1 ha) and small farmers (1-2 ha). The energy used in carrying out field operation in production was derived from human, animal and mechanical power. The availability of farm power was about 3.9 kW/ha and 5.1 kW/ha for marginal and small farmers respectively. The energy input per hectare of marginal and small scale farming was in the ratio of 1.0. The total energy input for marginal and small farm categories were 17,121 MJ and 17,060 MJ per hectare respectively. Fertilizer was the most energy consuming operation with about 48% of total energy inputs. It was also found that about 22%, 0.8% and 29% of total energy input were found from human, animal and mechanical power respectively. Benefit cost ratio was 1.24.
Singh R.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region |
Panda R.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur |
Satapathy K.K.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Ngachan S.V.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012
The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) watershed model was calibrated and validated for a hilly watershed treated with graded bunding and water-harvesting tank in high rainfall condition of eastern Himalayan range in India. The performance of the model for the treated watershed was unacceptable with percent deviation of -45. 81 and -38. 35 respectively for runoff and sediment yield simulations when calibrated parameter values for the nearby untreated watershed were used. This was possibly due to differences in soil properties and average land slope. When soil parameters were calibrated for the treated watershed, the model performance improved remarkably. During calibration, the model simulated surface runoff and sediment yield with percent deviations equal to +6. 24 and +9. 02, and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation coefficients equal to 0. 85 and 0. 81, respectively. During validation period, the model simulated runoff and sediment yield with percent deviations equal to +8. 56 and +9. 36, and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation coefficients equal to 0. 81 and 0. 80, respectively. The model tended to slightly under-predict runoff and sediment yield of higher magnitudes. The model performance was quite sensitive to soil parameters namely, rill erodibility, interrill erodibility, hydraulic conductivity, critical shear stress and Manning's roughness coefficient with varying levels. The WEPP model picked up the hydrology associated with bund and water-harvesting tank, and simulated runoff and sediment yield well with overall deviations within ±10% and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation coefficients >0. 80. Simulation results indicate that in high slope and high rainfall conditions of eastern Himalayan region of India where vegetative measures are not adequate to restrict soil loss within the permissible limit, the WEPP model can be applied to formulate structure-based management strategies to control soil loss and to develop water resources. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Banika S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Nag D.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Debnath S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2011
A special type of machine with metal knife scrapper roller and serrated roller has been developed and used to scrap out the waxy layer and at the same time macerating and breaking the leaf surface for ease of retting to extract the pineapple leaf fibres. Pineapple leaf contains 2.5-3.5% strong, white and silky textile grade fibre embedded by a top waxy layer within the leaf. After removing the top waxy layer, fibre has been extracted from the pineapple leaf by retting in water. The residual green sludge has been used for vermicomposting after appropriate treatment using earthworm species African night crawler (Eudrilus eugeniae) as inoculums. The ermicomposting process was complete within 45 days. This vermicompost from pineapple leaf agro-waste is found to be rich in plant nutrients. The combined technology package for the extraction of fibre from pineapple leaf and utilization of the residual biomass debris from the pineapple leaf scratching machine forvermicomposting is economically viable and remunerative for the pineapple cultivators.
Debnatha S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2011
Thermal resistance and air permeability of needle-punched nonwoven fabric made from jute and polypropylene blends have been studied using the Box and Behnken factorial design to observe the effect of fabric weight, needling density and blend proportion on thickness, thermal resistance, specific thermal resistance, air permeability and sectional air permeability. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis have also been used to understand the relationship and grouping behaviour of the dependent and independent variables. It is observed that the thermal resistance and thickness increase but air permeability and sectional air permeability decrease significantly with the increase in fabric weight at all levels of jute contents. Significant (p < 0.05000) negative correlations r = - 0.67 and r = - 0.61 exist between needling density & thermal resistance and needling density & specific thermal resistance respectively. The highest thermal resistance and specific thermal resistance have been obtained at 430 g/m2 fabric weight and 150 punches/cm2 needling density. All dependent variables are highly influenced by fabric weight (Euclidean distance ~ 560) which is a different cluster identity.
Chakraborty S.,Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University |
Weindorf D.C.,Texas Tech University |
Li B.,Louisiana State University |
Ali M.N.,Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014
This pilot study compared penalized spline regression (PSR) and random forest (RF) regression using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) derived spectra of 164 petroleum contaminated soils after two different spectral pretreatments [first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate (SNV) followed by detrending] for rapid quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Additionally, a new analytical approach was proposed for the recovery of the pure spectral and concentration profiles of n-hexane present in the unresolved mixture of petroleum contaminated soils using multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The PSR model using FD spectra (r2 = 0.87, RMSE = 0.580 log10 mg kg-1, and residual prediction deviation = 2.78) outperformed all other models tested. Quantitative results obtained by MCR-ALS for n-hexane in presence of interferences (r2 = 0.65 and RMSE 0.261 log10 mg kg-1) were comparable to those obtained using FD (PSR) model. Furthermore, MCR ALS was able to recover pure spectra of n-hexane. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sengupta S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Sengupta A.,Bengal Engineering and Science University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2012
Electrical resistance of jute canvas, hessian and cross-laid needle-punched nonwoven fabrics has been measured in a laboratory made set-up. Effect of gauge length, voltage, moisture, fibre orientation, temperature, area density has been studied and analysed. It is observed that electrical resistance increases with the increase in gauge length and decreases with the increase in input voltage, moisture, temperature and area density. Jute hessian, canvas and nonwoven fabrics show the resistance value in descending order. Length-wise electrical resistance is higher than width-wise resistance of jute needlepunched nonwoven fabric, whereas in case of canvas and hessian the effect is reversed.
Roy A.K.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Chattopadhyay S.N.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2012
Search for non-wood lignocellulosic fibres began in early seventy as a result of sudden surge in the demand of paper and in subsequent years need for capacity expansion necessitated the search for alternative fibrous raw materials. Extensive research work undertaken by CPPRJ(central Pulp and Paper Research Institute) & UNDP reported that for jute and other plants belonging to the jute family kenaf, mesta etc. both the fibre alone and the whole plant produced good quality pulp and paper. Since January 2001, the former IJO, presently the International Jute study Group (IJSG) had implemented a project on utilization of whole jute/kenaf as raw material for pulp and paper, involving five nations namely, Netherlands, France, China, Bangladesh and India. It recommended that jute and kenaf are good alternative raw material for paper and pulp. Quality of paper from jute and kenaf is similar to that of bamboo and other soft wood pulp. The pulping process studied were sodaAQ and Kraft process. NIRJAFT has been working independently on utilization of jute as an alternative raw material since last three decades. It has been observed that jute pulp produced by modified sodaAQ process (ASAM Process) is superior to the kraft pulp. To make jute acceptable as a raw material for pulp and paper, we have to adopt a pulping process which does not have the drawbacks of kraft process but gives paper of better strength, easy bleachability and without the environmental drawbacks i.e., obnoxious smell of mercaptan gas. Today we find that jute is not used as a raw material for paper and pulp in small scale paper mills and handmade paper units. It is because jute requires chopping which is laborious and pulping by a method which should be user and environment friendly. NIRJAFT has now developed a pulping method which can be used for both unbleached and bleached paper. The process is not only user friendly but is also eco-friendly, as no obnoxious gas is released or emitted after pulping. Similarly the effluent released can be used for isolating high-dry ligno-sulphonates which has a number of industrial applications. The average productivity of jute is 1.6-1.9 tons/hectare and India produces 1.5 million tons of jute annually along with 3 million tons of jute stick and 6.2 million ton of whole jute plant on dry weight basis. India's food production has increased from 8million tons in 1950-51 to 238 million tons presently. Although NIRJAFT has no role in the food production of the country, it owes a huge responsibility for transportation and packaging of food grains. There was a time when the bulk of the food grain was transported by gunny bags. Now as a result of competition from synthetics bags, jute is loosing its pristine glory. Unbleached paper produced from jute can be used as a packaging material in the form of multilayered paper bags for cement, laminated paper bags for food grains and fertilizer. Corrugated boards obtained from unbleached paper can be used for packaging and transportation of consumer durables, home appliances, and electronic products, fruits, fast food (viz. pizza) and a large number of items. Similarly tetra packs for beverages. The high burst index for jute and whole jute pulp makes jute a preferred raw material for corrugated boards.
Sengupta S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2010
Effect of area density, fabric type, source intensity, number of layers, distance of fabric from sound source, distance of fabric from the receiver and fibre type on sound reduction of various needle-punched nonwoven fabrics has been studied in an indigenously fabricated equipment. Nonwoven fabric shows higher sound reduction than the woven fabric. Jutepolypropylene (1:1) blend shows maximum sound reduction among jute, polypropylene, polyester and other jutepolypropylene blend (3:1 and 1:3) samples. Higher area density is responsible for higher sound reduction and there is a negative correlation between area density or bulk density of needle-punched nonwoven and sound reduction. With the increase in number of layers of nonwoven fabric, the sound reduction through the fabric increases initially but after the maximum it remains almost unaltered. Sound reduction also increases as the distance between the fabric and the sound source increases, and the source decibel decreases.
Debnath S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology |
Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2010
The normal round, circular hollow and trilobal cross-sectional shaped polyester fibres have been used to prepare needle-punched nonwoven fabrics for technical textile application. Effects of fabric weight and fibre cross-sectional shapes on thermal insulation value (TIV), fabric thickness, density, percentage compression, air permeability and sectional air permeability (SAP) have been studied. Comparison between Marsh and plate methods of TIV measurement has also been studied along with the inter-relation and grouping of parameters using correlation matrix and cluster analysis approach respectively. The TIV, thickness, density, air permeability and SAP fall under different sub-cluster but all these parameters are dependent on fabric weight. Plate method of TIV measurement is preferred over Marsh TIV measurement because of the easy preparation of samples and the reason that the samples retain their original properties and it gives more accurate results. Trilobal fabric sample shows highest TIV, thickness and percentage compression followed by regular and hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics. Thermal insulation value, thickness and density of the fabric increase but percentage compression, air permeability and SAP decrease with the increase in fabric weight. The fabric thickness is significantly correlated with fabric weight and TIV. Fabric weight versus air permeability and fabric density versus SAP are negatively correlated with significant correlation coefficient.
Banik S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2016
Ecofriendly and water saving retting technology of jute has been developed, using pectinolytic fungi by dry fermentation procedure to overcome the shortcomings of conventional retting of jute. Four pectinolytic fungi have been used for these fungal dry retting of jute, viz. Aspergillus tamarii, A. flavus, A. niger and Sporotrichum thermophile. This fungal dry retting is found to be an aerobic process unlike conventional water retting, and hence is environment pollution free, faster, water saving and able to produce good quality jute fibre with strong and unbroken full length jute stick as desired by the jute farmers. In field trial, the average fibre strength is 27.7 g tex-1, fibre fineness 2.8 tex and fibre grade between TD-4 and TD-5. These fungi have no adverse effect on the succeeding crop rice. Eight pound regular yarn is prepared from these fibres having normal textile properties. It is expected that this new concept of waterless retting technique by pectinolytic fungi may solve the present water crisis for retting of jute and other allied bast fibres. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.