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Brauner E.V.,Danish Cancer Society | Brauner E.V.,University of Aalborg | Andersen C.E.,Technical University of Denmark | Sorensen M.,Danish Cancer Society | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed.Median estimated radon was 35.8Bq/m 3. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification.We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Pedersen C.,Danish Cancer Society | Brauner E.V.,Danish Cancer Society | Brauner E.V.,University of Aalborg | Rod N.H.,Copenhagen University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968-1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132-400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p = 0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p = 0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p = 0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance. © 2014 Pedersen et al. Source


Brauner E.V.,Danish Cancer Society | Brauner E.V.,University of Aalborg | Andersen Z.J.,Danish Cancer Society | Andersen Z.J.,Copenhagen University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist.Objective:To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort.Methods:During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed.Results:Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution.Conclusions:We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. © 2013 Bräuner et al. Source


Brauner E.V.,Danish Cancer Society | Loft S.,Copenhagen University | Sorensen M.,Danish Cancer Society | Jensen A.,Danish Cancer Society | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95%CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin.We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes. Copyright: © 2015 Bräuner et al. Source


Brauner E.V.,Danish Cancer Society | Andersen C.E.,Technical University of Denmark | Andersen H.P.,National Survey and Cadastra | Gravesen P.,Geological Survey of Denmark | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2010

Background: In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Hypothesis: Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon and childhood leukemia. Methods: We included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10 3 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p interaction, 0.17). Analyses for different morphological subtypes of leukemia and within different strata of traffic density showed a non-significant pattern of stronger associations between radon and childhood leukemia within strata of higher traffic density at the street address. Interpretation: Air pollution from traffic may enhance the effect of radon on the risk of childhood leukemia. The observed tendency may also be attributed to chance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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