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Allal-Elasmi M.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Feki M.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Zayani Y.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Hsairi M.,National Institute of Public Heath | And 6 more authors.
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2012

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of prehypertension (preHTN) and its cardiometabolic profile in Tunisians, and to estimate the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) according to blood pressure status. Patients and method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004-2005, and used a two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of the Great Tunis population. A total of 2712 individuals (1228 men and 1484 women), aged 35 to 69 years were included. Definition and classification of hypertension (HTN) was performed according to guidelines from the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC-7) report. Results: The prevalence of preHTN and HTN was 56.8% and 25.0% in males, and 43.1% and 36.1% in females, respectively. Subjects with preHTN and those with HTN showed higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and abdominal obesity than the normotensive (NT) group. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was found in 8.0%, 17.8% and 53.8% of NT, preHT and HTN subjects, respectively. The risk of developing CHD within 10 years, as predicted by the Framingham-Anderson model, was above 15% for 3.9%, 31.1% and 65.0% among NT, preHTN and HTN subjects, respectively. In multivariate analysis, preHTN was associated with age (OR [95% CI], 1.02 [1.01-1.03]; P< 0.01), male gender (2.51 [1.89-3.23]; P< 0.001), obesity (2.36 [1.71-3.26]; P< 0.01), abdominal obesity (1.53 [1.14-2.06]; P< 0.01) and smoking (0.70 [0.53-0.92]; P< 0.01). Conclusion: PreHTN is very common in Tunisians. It is associated with a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and confers a higher risk for subsequent CHD. These findings support the recommendations of lifestyle modification for preHTN patients. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Allal-Elasmi M.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Haj Taieb S.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Hsairi M.,Research laboratory LR99ES11 | Hsairi M.,National Institute of Public Heath | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with socio-economic status in the population of Great Tunis. Methods: The study included 2712 subjects (1228 men and 1484 women), aged 35-70 years and living in the Great Tunis region, all of whom were recruited between March 2004 and June 2005. The sample was weighted by using the inverse of the response rate according to governorate, district and gender. The MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Results: In the studied population, the overall prevalence of the MetS was 31.2%, and it was significantly more frequently seen in women than in men (37.3% vs 23.9%, respectively; P < 0.001), as were abdominal obesity (69% vs 21.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), high blood pressure (50.3% vs 43.1%, respectively; P < 0.001) and low HDL cholesterol (40.6% vs 33.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), the most common characteristics of the MetS. Also, the prevalence of the MetS increased with age in both genders, but more so in women. In those aged greater than 55 years, the prevalence of MetS was 56.7% in women and 30.7% in men. An inverse relationship was observed between level of education and prevalence of the MetS in women, with the highest prevalence being in illiterate women and the lowest in those who were university graduates. Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is markedly high within the population of Great Tunis and especially in women. As these findings predict future increases in cardiovascular disease in these populations, substantial efforts need to be made to fight against obesity and sedentary lifestyles to ameliorate the expected poor health outcomes. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Konecka-Matyjek E.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Mackiw E.,National Institute of Public Heath | Krygier B.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Tomczuk K.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction and objective: The risk of food-borne infections in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems is much higher and can also lead to more serious health consequences than among other population groups. Therefore, food hygiene within the hospital setting, should be handled in an appropriate manner. In 2008, there were 732 hospitals in Poland. It was estimated that 7.2 million hospitalized patients, with an average hospital stay of 5.9 days, benefited from hospital meals. On average, nearly half of the hospitals (ranging from 30%-50%, depending on the province) outsourced the preparation and delivery of meals to external service providers. The objective of this study was to survey the bacteriological contamination of selected food production and processing areas in hospital kitchens in Poland. Materials and methods: The nationwide microbiological examination of food contact surfaces was performed in 10% of randomly selected hospital kitchens in all 16 provinces in Poland. A total of 3,277 samples were scientifically examined for hygiene indicator micro-organisms; namely, for Total Viable Count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae count and coliforms, as well as for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci. The environmental samples were collected and examined according to European and Polish standards. All analyses were performed using Statistica version 6 software. Results: The results revealed that food hygiene within the test sample was poor. Of the total samples taken for testing, 25.5% failed. The most common failures were related to excess TVC in swabs. Conclusion: Testing shows that there is a need to improve the standard of hygiene in food handling areas of Polish hospitals. Source

Bermudez-Morales V.H.,National Institute of Public Heath | Peralta-Zaragoza O.,National Institute of Public Heath | Alcocer-Gonzalez J.M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Moreno J.,National Institute of Public Heath | Madrid-Marina V.,National Institute of Public Heath
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2011

It has been found that certain cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1) are highly expressed locally in biopsies from patients with premalignant lesions and cervical cancer, and may induce a local immune-suppression state. In particular, IL-10 is highly expressed in tumor cells and its expression is directly proportional to the development of HPV-positive cervical cancer, suggesting an important role of HPV proteins in the expression of IL-10. in fact, we demonstrated that E6 and E7 HPV proteins regulate TGF-β1 gene expression in cervical cancer cells. Here, we found by band shifting analysis that the HPV E2 protein binds to the regulatory region of the human IL-10 gene (-2054 nt) and induces high promoter activity in epithelial cells, additionally, cervical cancer cells transfected to express the HPV E2 protein induce elevated levels of IL-10 mRNA in human papillomavirus-infected cells. The elevated expression of IL-10 may allow for virus persistency, the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, and consequently cancer development. Source

Zasada A.A.,National Institute of Public Heath | Baczewska-Rej M.,National Institute of Public Heath | Wardak S.,National Institute of Public Heath
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections - mainly invasive infections - has been observed in countries with high vaccination coverage. However, reasons for this situation are unknown. In this study we characterized and compared human clinical isolates of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains isolated from infections that have occurred over recent years and C. diphtheriae strains isolated from diphtheria cases from past outbreaks in Poland. Methods: We determined biotypes, genotypes, the occurrence of plasmids, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 19 clinical C. diphtheriae strains. Genotypes were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) techniques. Results: The non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains isolated over the last few years were found to belong to biotype gravis and were genetically indistinguishable using PFGE and ERIC-PCR techniques. No plasmids were detected in the strains. All tested strains were susceptible to penicillin and erythromycin, as well as to imipenem, vancomycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and linezolid. Of the strains tested, 47% were intermediate for cefotaxime. Conclusions: The genetic similarity of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains causing infection suggests that the strains represent a single clone. They may possess additional virulence genes in a chromosome, related with higher pathogenicity and invasiveness. The genetic changes have not been followed by resistance to antibiotics. © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

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