National Institute of Public Heath

Tunis, Tunisia

National Institute of Public Heath

Tunis, Tunisia
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Konecka-Matyjek E.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Mackiw E.,National Institute of Public Heath | Krygier B.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Tomczuk K.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Stos K.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction and objective: The risk of food-borne infections in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems is much higher and can also lead to more serious health consequences than among other population groups. Therefore, food hygiene within the hospital setting, should be handled in an appropriate manner. In 2008, there were 732 hospitals in Poland. It was estimated that 7.2 million hospitalized patients, with an average hospital stay of 5.9 days, benefited from hospital meals. On average, nearly half of the hospitals (ranging from 30%-50%, depending on the province) outsourced the preparation and delivery of meals to external service providers. The objective of this study was to survey the bacteriological contamination of selected food production and processing areas in hospital kitchens in Poland. Materials and methods: The nationwide microbiological examination of food contact surfaces was performed in 10% of randomly selected hospital kitchens in all 16 provinces in Poland. A total of 3,277 samples were scientifically examined for hygiene indicator micro-organisms; namely, for Total Viable Count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae count and coliforms, as well as for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci. The environmental samples were collected and examined according to European and Polish standards. All analyses were performed using Statistica version 6 software. Results: The results revealed that food hygiene within the test sample was poor. Of the total samples taken for testing, 25.5% failed. The most common failures were related to excess TVC in swabs. Conclusion: Testing shows that there is a need to improve the standard of hygiene in food handling areas of Polish hospitals.


Dobrzynska M.M.,National Institute of Public Heath | Tyrkiel E.J.,National Institute of Public Heath | Gajowik A.,National Institute of Public Heath
Mutagenesis | Year: 2017

Humans are exposed to phthalates continuously throughout life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects induced in male mice following 8 weeks of subchronic exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during their puberty and to investigate the possibility of transmission of mutations to subsequent generations via the sperm. Pzh:Sfis outbred male mice aged 4.5 weeks were exposed to DBP by gavage for 8 weeks, 3 days per week to doses of 1/16 LD50 or 1/4 LD50 each time. Six to seven males from each dosage group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the start of exposure for examination of sperm count and quality. Immediately after the end of exposure, the remaining males were caged for 1 week with two unexposed females each. Group of females were sacrificed 1 day before expected parturition, whilst other females were allowed to deliver and rear litters. F1 generation males at 8-9 weeks of age were caged with females from the same group, but from a different litter, for examination of prenatal development of the F2 generation. The remaining F1 generation males were sacrificed at the same age to check the sperm count and quality. Our results confirmed the toxic effects of DBP on the reproductive organs and germ cells of pubertally exposed males. The changes induced in male gametes might be transmitted to the next generation via the sperm. The most important effects were induced in the F1 generation. Exposure of F0 males to DBP induced skeletal malformations in surviving foetuses, caused significant mortality in postnatal life and a disturbance in the sex ratio (superior survival of females in F1), as well as increased frequency of DNA damage in the germ cells of F1 males. The present study did not confirm higher sensitivity to DBP of pubescent males compared to adult males, but the effects induced in the F1 generation differed from that after exposure of adult F0 males. © The Author 2017.


Pancer K.,National Institute of Public Heath | Ciacka A.,National Institute of Public Heath | Gut W.,National Institute of Public Heath | Lipka B.,Childrens Memorial Health Institute | And 7 more authors.
Polish Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infections in young children, immunocompromised patients (children and adults), patients with chronic respiratory diseases and elderly people. Reinfections occur throughout the life, but the severity of disease decreased with subsequent infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of RSV infections in two selected subpopulations: young children (below 5 y.) and adults with chronic respiratory diseases (25-87 y.). Nasopharyngeal swabs (334) collected from October 2008 to March 2010 were examined. The presence of RSV genome was determined by RT-PCR and the presence of RSV antigen by quick immunochromatographic test. Positive results of RT-PCR were found in 45.2% of all swabs: 48.6% samples in 2008; 41.5% in 2009; 50.8% in 2010. The highest frequency of RSV-positive samples was in fall-winter months, but differences in RSV epidemic seasons were found. In the first season (2008-2009) an increased number of RSV infections was observed from November 2008, but in the second season - from January 2010. Generally, the frequency of RSV-positive RT-PCR among children was 53%, among adults 25%. The highest difference was observed in the first three-month period of 2010. RT-PCR positive samples were found in 68.5% of children and 5.9% of adults. However, the RSV antigen was found in 44.4% of samples collected from adults in this period. Our results indicate that the contribution of RSV infections during epidemic season of respiratory tract infections in Poland was really high among children and adults.


Allal-Elasmi M.,Rabta Hospital | Haj Taieb S.,Rabta Hospital | Hsairi M.,Rabta Hospital | Hsairi M.,National Institute of Public Heath | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with socio-economic status in the population of Great Tunis. Methods: The study included 2712 subjects (1228 men and 1484 women), aged 35-70 years and living in the Great Tunis region, all of whom were recruited between March 2004 and June 2005. The sample was weighted by using the inverse of the response rate according to governorate, district and gender. The MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Results: In the studied population, the overall prevalence of the MetS was 31.2%, and it was significantly more frequently seen in women than in men (37.3% vs 23.9%, respectively; P < 0.001), as were abdominal obesity (69% vs 21.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), high blood pressure (50.3% vs 43.1%, respectively; P < 0.001) and low HDL cholesterol (40.6% vs 33.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), the most common characteristics of the MetS. Also, the prevalence of the MetS increased with age in both genders, but more so in women. In those aged greater than 55 years, the prevalence of MetS was 56.7% in women and 30.7% in men. An inverse relationship was observed between level of education and prevalence of the MetS in women, with the highest prevalence being in illiterate women and the lowest in those who were university graduates. Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is markedly high within the population of Great Tunis and especially in women. As these findings predict future increases in cardiovascular disease in these populations, substantial efforts need to be made to fight against obesity and sedentary lifestyles to ameliorate the expected poor health outcomes. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Bermudez-Morales V.H.,National Institute of Public Heath | Peralta-Zaragoza O.,National Institute of Public Heath | Alcocer-Gonzalez J.M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo León | Moreno J.,National Institute of Public Heath | Madrid-Marina V.,National Institute of Public Heath
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2011

It has been found that certain cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1) are highly expressed locally in biopsies from patients with premalignant lesions and cervical cancer, and may induce a local immune-suppression state. In particular, IL-10 is highly expressed in tumor cells and its expression is directly proportional to the development of HPV-positive cervical cancer, suggesting an important role of HPV proteins in the expression of IL-10. in fact, we demonstrated that E6 and E7 HPV proteins regulate TGF-β1 gene expression in cervical cancer cells. Here, we found by band shifting analysis that the HPV E2 protein binds to the regulatory region of the human IL-10 gene (-2054 nt) and induces high promoter activity in epithelial cells, additionally, cervical cancer cells transfected to express the HPV E2 protein induce elevated levels of IL-10 mRNA in human papillomavirus-infected cells. The elevated expression of IL-10 may allow for virus persistency, the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, and consequently cancer development.


Allal-Elasmi M.,Rabta hospital | Feki M.,Rabta hospital | Zayani Y.,Rabta hospital | Hsairi M.,National Institute of Public Heath | And 6 more authors.
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2012

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of prehypertension (preHTN) and its cardiometabolic profile in Tunisians, and to estimate the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) according to blood pressure status. Patients and method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004-2005, and used a two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of the Great Tunis population. A total of 2712 individuals (1228 men and 1484 women), aged 35 to 69 years were included. Definition and classification of hypertension (HTN) was performed according to guidelines from the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC-7) report. Results: The prevalence of preHTN and HTN was 56.8% and 25.0% in males, and 43.1% and 36.1% in females, respectively. Subjects with preHTN and those with HTN showed higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and abdominal obesity than the normotensive (NT) group. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was found in 8.0%, 17.8% and 53.8% of NT, preHT and HTN subjects, respectively. The risk of developing CHD within 10 years, as predicted by the Framingham-Anderson model, was above 15% for 3.9%, 31.1% and 65.0% among NT, preHTN and HTN subjects, respectively. In multivariate analysis, preHTN was associated with age (OR [95% CI], 1.02 [1.01-1.03]; P< 0.01), male gender (2.51 [1.89-3.23]; P< 0.001), obesity (2.36 [1.71-3.26]; P< 0.01), abdominal obesity (1.53 [1.14-2.06]; P< 0.01) and smoking (0.70 [0.53-0.92]; P< 0.01). Conclusion: PreHTN is very common in Tunisians. It is associated with a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and confers a higher risk for subsequent CHD. These findings support the recommendations of lifestyle modification for preHTN patients. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Zasada A.A.,National Institute of Public Heath | Baczewska-Rej M.,National Institute of Public Heath | Wardak S.,National Institute of Public Heath
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections - mainly invasive infections - has been observed in countries with high vaccination coverage. However, reasons for this situation are unknown. In this study we characterized and compared human clinical isolates of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains isolated from infections that have occurred over recent years and C. diphtheriae strains isolated from diphtheria cases from past outbreaks in Poland. Methods: We determined biotypes, genotypes, the occurrence of plasmids, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 19 clinical C. diphtheriae strains. Genotypes were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) techniques. Results: The non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains isolated over the last few years were found to belong to biotype gravis and were genetically indistinguishable using PFGE and ERIC-PCR techniques. No plasmids were detected in the strains. All tested strains were susceptible to penicillin and erythromycin, as well as to imipenem, vancomycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and linezolid. Of the strains tested, 47% were intermediate for cefotaxime. Conclusions: The genetic similarity of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains causing infection suggests that the strains represent a single clone. They may possess additional virulence genes in a chromosome, related with higher pathogenicity and invasiveness. The genetic changes have not been followed by resistance to antibiotics. © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases.


Maczka I.,National Institute of Public Heath | Pawlus-Lachecka L.,Laboratory of Microbiology | Fiecek B.,National Institute of Public Heath | Chmielewski T.,National Institute of Public Heath | Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.,National Institute of Public Heath
Experimental and Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2014

The tick-borne infections are very frequent diseases occurring in humans in our country, as well as in all over the Europe. The purpose of the studies was to evaluate the probability of incidents of implanting heart tissue grafts infected with pathogens transmitted by ticks, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii. Obtained results indicate that graft donors are not free of these pathogens. Among 78 donors are not free of these pathogens. Among 78 donors tested, Bartonella spp. and B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA were found in the heart tissues in 2 (2.56%) of them. It seems that the tests detecting these pathogens and epidemiological anamnesis from donors family would be helpful, at least in the area heavy infested with ticks.


PubMed | National Institute of Public Heath
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Polish journal of microbiology | Year: 2011

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infections in young children, immunocompromised patients (children and adults), patients with chronic respiratory diseases and elderly people. Reinfections occur throughout the life, but the severity of disease decreased with subsequent infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of RSV infections in two selected subpopulations: young children (below 5 y.) and adults with chronic respiratory diseases (25-87 y.). Nasopharyngeal swabs (334) collected from October 2008 to March 2010 were examined. The presence of RSV genome was determined by RT-PCR and the presence of RSV antigen by quick immunochromatographic test. Positive results of RT-PCR were found in 45.2% of all swabs: 48.6% samples in 2008; 41.5% in 2009; 50.8% in 2010. The highest frequency of RSV-positive samples was in fall-winter months, but differences in RSV epidemic seasons were found. In the first season (2008-2009) an increased number of RSV infections was observed from November 2008, but in the second season--from January 2010. Generally, the frequency of RSV-positive RT-PCR among children was 53%, among adults 25%. The highest difference was observed in the first three-month period of 2010. RT-PCR positive samples were found in 68.5% of children and 5.9% of adults. However, the RSV antigen was found in 44.4% of samples collected from adults in this period. Our results indicate that the contribution of RSV infections during epidemic season of respiratory tract infections in Poland was really high among children and adults.

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