National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS

Saint-Maurice, France

National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS

Saint-Maurice, France
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Vrijheid M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Vrijheid M.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | Vrijheid M.,CIBER ISCIII | Casas M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 46 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2012

Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother-child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother-child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12-19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health.

Samoli E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Dominici F.,Harvard University | Touloumi G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Ramsay T.,University of Ottawa | And 10 more authors.
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2013

The "Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach" (APHENA) project is a collaborative analysis of multi-city time-series data on the association between air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The main objective of APHENA was to examine the coherence of findings of time-series studies relating short-term fluctuations in air pollution levels to mortality and morbidity in 125 cities in Europe, the US, and Canada. Multi-city time-series analysis was conducted using a two-stage approach. We used Poisson regression models controlling for overdispersion with either penalized or natural splines to adjust for seasonality. Hierarchical models were used to obtain an overall estimate of excess mortality associated with ozone and to assess potential effect modification. Potential effect modifiers were city-level characteristics related to exposure to other ambient air pollutants, weather, socioeconomic status, and the vulnerability of the population. Regionally pooled risk estimates from Europe and the US were similar; those from Canada were substantially higher. The pooled estimated excess relative risk associated with a 10 μg/m3 increase in 1 h daily maximum O3 was 0.26 % (95 % CI, 0.15 %, 0.37 %). Across regions, there was little consistent indication of effect modification by age or other effect modifiers considered in the analysis. The findings from APHENA on the effects of O3 on mortality in the general population were comparable with previously reported results and relatively robust to the method of data analysis. Overall, there was no indication of strong effect modification by age or ecologic variables considered in the analysis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Guldner L.,University of Rennes 1 | Guldner L.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Multigner L.,University of Rennes 1 | Heraud F.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2010

Context: Chlordecone, an environmentally persistent organochlorine insecticide used intensively in banana culture in the French West Indies until 1993, has permanently polluted soils and contaminated foodstuffs. Consumption of contaminated food is the main source of exposure nowadays. We sought to identify main contributors to blood chlordecone concentration (BCC) and to validate an exposure indicator based on food intakes. Material and methods: We used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by a sample of 194 pregnant women to estimate their dietary exposure to chlordecone and compared it to blood levels. In a first approach, chlordecone daily intake was estimated as the product of daily eaten quantity of 214 foodstuffs, multiplied by their chlordecone content, and summed over all items. We then predicted individual blood chlordecone concentration with empirical weight regression models based on frequency of food consumption, and without contamination data. Results: Among the 191 subjects who had BCC determination, 146 (76%) had detectable values and mean BCC was 0.86 ng/mL (range < LOD-13.2). Mean per capita dietary intake of chlordecone was estimated at 3.3 μg/day (range: 0.1-22.2). Blood chlordecone levels were significantly correlated with food exposure predicted from the empirical weight models (r=0.47, p<0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, with chlordecone intake estimated from food consumption and food contamination data (r=0.20, p=0.007). Main contributors to chlordecone exposure included seafood, root vegetables, and Cucurbitaceous. Conclusion: These results show that the Timoun FFQ provides valid estimates of chlordecone exposure. Estimates from empirical weight models correlated better with blood levels of chlordecone than did estimates from the dietary intake assessment. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vandentorren S.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Zeman F.,INERIS | Morin L.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Sarter H.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Exposure to phthalates and Bisphenol A could cause developmental and reproductive toxicity. This study provides a first assessment of these exposures for more than 250 French pregnant women. The median concentrations of total and free Bisphenol A in urine were similar to those in other studies except the highest concentrations (5% of women had total and free Bisphenol A >50 γg/L). Our study highlights high levels of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites in pregnant women, suggesting recent exposure, probably in hospital. Differences between types of delivery (caesarean vs. natural) support this hypothesis. This is a significant implication for large-scale biomonitoring studies among this population. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Zeman F.A.,INERIS | Boudet C.,INERIS | Tack K.,INERIS | Floch Barneaud A.,INERIS | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

The ubiquitous use of phthalate esters in plastics, building material, medical devices, personal care products and food packaging materials results in a widespread exposure of general population. This study reports measurement of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites in France and provides a first assessment of the exposure of French pregnant women to this chemical class. For the majority of the phthalate metabolites, concentrations measured in urine were similar to those reported in previous studies except for two phthalates that were characterized by high concentrations of metabolites if compared to previous European and American studies: DiNP (Di-iso-nonylphthalate) and DEHP (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate). In a second part of the study, a pharmacokinetic model was used in order to gain understanding on exposure to DEHP. A high concentration of the primary metabolite of DEHP, MEHP (Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), was thus identified probably because of a very recent exposure to perfusion materials at the hospital. Pharmacokinetics modelling highlighted that gathering data on the time gap between exposure and biomonitoring is an essential information requirement for reconstructing the dose of non persistent pollutants. Information about exposure pathway is also crucial for conducting effective reverse dosimetry. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

Focant J.-F.,University of Liège | Frery N.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Bidondo M.-L.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Eppe G.,University of Liège | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

We report on the pilot study carried out before the start of the Elfe project (French longitudinal study from childhood). A total of 44 samples of mature human milk were collected at home 8weeks after delivery. A total of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 6 non dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs were measured. For total TEQ (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs), the geometric mean concentration was 17.81pg TEQWHO05/g lipids. Relative PCDD, PCDF, and DL-PCB contributions to the arithmetic mean TEQWHO05 were 38%, 18%, and 44%, respectively. The use of TEFWHO05 instead of TEFWHO98 resulted in a 27% reduction of the total TEQ value. Although PCDD levels did not significantly change (less than 0.5% increase), PCDF and DL-PCB levels both decreased by 35% and 38%, respectively. Levels have been compared to data obtained during a previous non-reported national study conducted in 1998 (TEFWHO98) in French lactaria (n=244). The mean of PCDD/Fs has decreased about 39.4% (18.8pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in 1998 vs 11.4pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in pilot study), respectively 41.5% for PCDDs (10.6pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in 1998 vs 6.2pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in pilot study) and 36.7% for PCDFs (7.9pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in 1998 vs 5.0pg TEQWHO98/g lipids in pilot study). For the sum of the 6 NDL-PCBs, the 2007 geometric mean concentration in milk was 176.3ng/g lipids. The arithmetic mean lipid concentration in 2007 breast milk was 26.4g/l (range from 6.0 to 46.7g/l). A PCDD/F and DL-PCB daily intake was estimated to be 62.3pg TEQWHO05/kg body weight per day (85.0pg TEQWHO98/kg body weight per day) for a baby of 5kg of body weight fed daily with 700ml of maternal milk containing 25g/l of lipids. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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