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Trkov M.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia | Rupel T.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Zgur-Bertok D.,University of Ljubljana | Trontelj S.,University of Ljubljana | And 2 more authors.
Food Technology and Biotechnology

Since food represents a possible source of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains, we analyzed 84 isolates from food samples identified in 2007 and 2008 at the National Institute of Public Health in Slovenia. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the isolates were classified into phylogenetic groups and subgroups following the Clermont method. Forty-two (50 %) and thirty (35.7 %) isolates were classified into commensal gut phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Only ten (11.9 %) and two (2.4 %) isolates were assigned to the phylogenetic groups D and B2, which include mainly extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains. The strains were further analyzed for the presence of various virulence genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnr genes. Virulence genes stx1, stx2, both stx1 and stx2, ehxA and eae associated with Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli were detected in one (1.2 %), five (6 %), five (6 %), eight (9.5 %) and three (3.7 %) isolates, respectively. Seventy-four (88.1 %) isolates carried the gene fimH, whereas virulence genes characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, hra, ompTAPEC and iha, were detected in nine (11 %), eight (9.5 %) and six (7 %) isolates, respectively. Genes kpsMTII, sfa, usp and vat were discovered in single isolates, whereas hlyA, bmaE, cnf, hbp and sat, as well as plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance genes qnr, were not detected in the analyzed strains. Our results show that various food items are indeed a source of intestinal and, albeit to a lesser extent, of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains. Source

Policnik R.,Regional Institute of Public Health | Pokorn D.,University of Maribor | Kulnik D.,University of Vienna | Micetic-Turk D.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Acta Alimentaria

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy and dietary intake of pre-school children (PSC) in Central Slovenia.A total of 129 PSC, average age 4.2 years, were included. The intake was assessed with the use of three-day weighed food records.The average daily energy intake of PSC was 5881.0±1394.2 kJ (1405.2 kcal). The average estimated daily intakes of macronutrients were: protein 13.9%E, fats 28.8%E and carbohydrates 57.1%E. The average daily intake of vitamins were: A 0.2±0.2 mg, E 11.5±3.8 mg, B1 0.9±1.0 mg, B2 1.0±0.2 mg, B6 1.2±0.4 mg, D 1.1±0.7 μg, C 104.5±46.2 mg, folates 176.4±63.1 μg and minerals: potassium 2276.4±762.4 mg, sodium 1951.4±583.0 mg, phosphorous 910.8±260.0 mg, zinc 7.3±2.1 mg, iodine 104.0±32.9 μg, calcium 580.1±170.6 mg, magnesium 249.6±91.2 mg in iron 9.1±3.4 mg.The average daily energy intake and average estimated daily intake of macronutrients of PSC were comparable to recommendations. We found low average estimated daily intake of vitamin D, folates and relative high intake of sodium in PSC diet. Source

Djomba J.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia | Djomba J.,University of Ljubljana | Vrbovsek S.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia | Cus B.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie

In Slovenia, the role of general practitioners in counselling physical activity for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well recognized. The role of general practitioners in advising healthy lifestyle for individuals who are at risk of developing CVD is formally defined in the National Program for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, which has been running since 2001. Part of the program is counselling on healthy lifestyle including physical activity, performed in all health centres across the country. First a screening and medical examination is performed. In case of higher risk for CVD (>20%) the physician should give advice on the particular risk factor and direct patients to health-education centres, where they can participate in healthy lifestyle workshops lead by health professionals. Physicians and other health professionals who are involved in the implementation of prevention activities within the program need knowledge and skills that are crucial for successful counselling on healthy lifestyle. The educational program "basic education in health promotion and prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary health care/family medicine" consists of two parts. The first part of the training is open to all health professionals working within the program. The second part is intended for health professionals working in health-education workshops. In the last few years a new family practice model has been introduced and disseminated. Some duties of the family physician, including health promotion and counselling, are being transferred to graduate nurses who become part of the family practice team. This new division of work undoubtedly brings many advantages, both in terms of the work organization, and of high-quality patient care. Nevertheless preventive action cannot be fully passed on to graduate nurses. Careful planning and education are needed to ensure a comprehensive approach in healthy life style counselling. Source

Pomerleau J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Knai C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Foster C.,University of Oxford | Rutter H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 19 more authors.
Public Health

Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project 'Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention of obesity across Europe' (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying levels of affluence or deprivation, within different countries. The questionnaire assesses (1) the food environment and (2) the built environment. Methods: Pilot tests of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire were conducted in five to 10 purposively sampled urban areas of different socio-economic status in each of Ankara, Brno, Marseille, Riga, and Sarajevo. Inter-rater reliability was compared between two pairs of fieldworkers in each city centre using three methods: inter-observer agreement (IOA), kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results: Data were collected successfully in all five cities. Overall reliability of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire was excellent (inter-observer agreement (IOA) > 0.87; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)s > 0.91 and kappa statistics > 0.7. However, assessment of certain aspects of the quality of the built environment yielded slightly lower IOA coefficients than the quantitative aspects. Conclusions: The EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire was found to be a reliable and practical observational tool for measuring differences in community-level data on environmental factors that can impact on dietary intake and physical activity. The next step is to evaluate its predictive power by collecting behavioural and anthropometric data relevant to obesity and its determinants. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Source

Polak M.L.,University of Ljubljana | Demsar L.,University of Ljubljana | Kirincic S.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia | Kozolc B.,National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia | Polak T.,University of Ljubljana
LWT - Food Science and Technology

The effects of the commercial meat starters Texel DCM-1 (containing Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus) and Texel LM-30 (containing S. xylosus, S. carnosus and Lactobacillus sakei) were investigated in terms of their degradation of a series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCBs 10, 28, 52, 138, 153 and 180) in two liquid culture media: brain heart infusion (BHI) and Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS). The four experimental groups were composed by the combinations of the two starter cultures with the two culture media. These groups were spiked with a standard solution of the PCB congeners (containing 10 μg/L of each), and incubated for up to 14 days at 30 °C. The results obtained show highly significant negative exponential relationships between the incubation time and concentrations of all PCB congeners tested. More than 50% degradation of total PCBs occurred within 48 h of incubation, and about 80% within 7 days. Maximum degradation (about 88%) was reached within 14 days for the MRS/LM-30 experimental group. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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