National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw

National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw

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Rogalska J.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Karasek E.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Paradowska-Stankiewicz I.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.


Kaminska S.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Sadkowska-Todys M.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiology of yersiniosis in Poland in 2012 compared to previous years. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" from 2007 to 2012 (MP Czarkowski et al., NIH and GIS) and individual yersiniosis case reports from 2012 sent by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. Additionally, we used data from the Department of Demographic Surveys in Central Statistical Office. In Poland in 2012 a total of 231 yersiniosis cases were reported including 201 cases of intestinal and 30 cases of extraintestinal yersiniosis; 61.9% of patients were hospitalized. The incidence rate was 0.6 per 100 000 inhabitants. No deaths related to the disease were reported. Intestinal yersiniosis was manifested mostly by following symptoms: diarrhoea (87%), fever (76%), abdominal pain (47%) and vomiting (31%). The most affected group in intestinal infections were children younger than 4 years - 145 cases (72% of all cases). Extraintestinal form of infection was more common than in 2011 (19 cases) and usually involved symptoms from the osteoarticular system, noted in 90% of patients. Similarly to the previous year (2011) most cases of yersiniosis were reported from Mazowieckie province (103), no case has been reported from Świetokrzyskie province. Serological types of Yersinia enterocolitica were identified in 120 cases (52%): serotype O3 (96.7%), O8 (2.5%) and O9 (<1%). There were two household outbreaks. In comparison to previous years the total number of cases caused by serotype O8 has significantly decreased - from 55 cases in 2011 to 3 cases in 2012. A large percentage (48%) of unknown Yersinia serotypes is a consequence, that physicians do not always request serotyping in routine diagnostics. Reporting cases of extraintestinal yersiniosis from only few provinces may suggest that the real number of infections remains underreported.


Baumann-Popczyk A.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Ślaskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.


Paradowska-Stankiewicz I.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Chrzescijanska I.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.


Zielinski A.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

Despite of the small number of cases reported in Poland tetanus is a permanent risk to unvaccinated people. The severity of the disease is associated with high case fatality, especially among people in older age groups. The aim of this paper is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in 2012. Principal source of the data is bulletin: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012, and individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH -NIH. In 2012, there were reported 19 cases of tetanus. 6 cases occurred in men, and 13 women. 13 cases occurred in persons over 69 years of age and in those age groups 6 cases were fatal. The paper describes the geographical distribution and the month of infection, the nature of the wounds which were portals of infection and the duration of incubation period of the cases. Severity of tetanus, despite a small number of cases each year leads to several deaths, which could be prevented by vaccination.


Rogalska J.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.


Golab E.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Czarkowski M.P.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of echinococcosis and cysticercosis in 2012 as compared to previous years. The assessment of the epidemiological situation was based on data contained in the individual reports on cases sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by the Regional Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations and on the pooled data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". In 2012, the total number of reported cases of echinococcosis in Poland was 28. This included: 11 undefined cases (39% of all cases), 7 alveolar echinococcosis cases (41% out of l7 cases in which the species of Echinococcus was recognized) and 10 cystic echinococcosis (59% of all defined cases). The total incidence of echinococcosis was 0.073/100 000. Cases were registered in 8 provinces. Most cases (9) and the highest incidence (0.620) was recorded in Warmińsko-Mazurskie. Echinococcus infections were reported in people aged 15 to 82 years, mostly adults (mean age 49.2 years, median 54.0). Echinococcosis was more frequent among women (incidence 0.096) than among men (incidence 0.048). The incidence of echinococcosis in rural areas was higher than in the city (0.125 vs. 0.039). Cysticercosis, which occurs sporadically in Poland, was not reported in 2012. For the purposes of epidemiological surveillance it would be advisable to introduce the obligatory differentiation of alveococcosis and hydatidosis, as well as a case definition for cysticercosis. In order to reduce the risk of contracting tapeworm infections, it is advisable to intensify educational efforts.


Staszewska E.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Kondej B.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Czarkowski M.P.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was performed by analysing surveillance data published in the bulletin, "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" (Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, CSI) and also in bulletins from previous years, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. In the last 15-20 years in Poland has been observed more than 2-fold lengthening of scarlet fever epidemic cycle, slowdown in the decline and slower growth rate in epidemic curve and decrease in average annual incidence. In 2012, in the country a total of 25 421 cases were registered and incidence was 66.0 per 100 000 population (in voivodeships: from 25.8 in łódzkie to 114.2 in pomorskie). The highest incidence was notified in 5-year-old (1094.7) and 6-year-old children (877.3), however, the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.6% of all cases. The incidence of men (74.8) was higher by almost 30% than the incidence of women (57.6). The incidence was higher in urban areas than in rural areas and was 72.7 (in rural area 55.7). 0.9% of patients were hospitalized. No deaths related to the disease were reported. Distinct changes in the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in recent decades are related to, i.a., aging of the Polish population and decline in the number of children, group particularly vulnerable to infection. In order to improve accuracy of surveillance data, it is recommended significantly increase percentage of cases in which clinical diagnosis will be confirmed by the result of bacteriological examination.


Rogalska J.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw | Paradowska-Stankiewicz I.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Ślaskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.


Stepien M.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene NIZP PZH in Warsaw
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2014

To describe the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2012 as compared with previous years. Evaluation of malaria epidemiological situation in Poland in 2012, based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and aggregate data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition approved in the EU countries. In 2012, a total of 21 malaria cases were registered in Poland, including one fatal case. All cases were imported from malaria-endemic countries: 52% from Africa and remaining cases from Asia. Overall, compared to 2011, 7 more cases were reported. Given a median for the years 2006-2010, the number remained at the same level. In one patient the recurrence of malaria falciparum was observed following the failure of treatment undertaken in Cameroon. Plasmodium species was determined in 18 cases (86%); including 10 (61%) caused by P. falciparum, 6 (33%) by P. vivax and one by P. malariae. One patient was diagnosed with mixed invasion. Infections were occurred most frequently during work-related trips (43%) or tourist trips (38%), in other cases the purpose of the journey was to visit the country of origin (14%) or its purpose remained unknown. Only four people took any chemoprophylaxis; in one case, a drug matched inappropriately to the destination was applied, the remaining three persons applied drugs contrary to the recommended drug regimen. The number of cases of imported malaria in Poland remained at a low level, similar to that observed in previous years. A large number of delayed diagnoses (more than half of the reported cases) and another case of fatal outcome in the course of malaria indicate still low awareness of malaria threat among both travelers and primary care physicians.

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