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Pachocki K.A.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013

Through its use of ionising radiation, the field of nuclear medicine forms a unique and significant part of medical diagnostics and patient treatment. Objectives. To assess the operational potential of nuclear medicine in Poland based on existing database/literature sources together with conducting a survey on the relevant healthcare facilities available, staffing, expertise and performance. To gather all available literature data on the medical use of ionising radiation in Poland several data bases were used, since currently, there are no single statistical data base devoted to this issue. Data on radiation hygiene were thus collected from the Statistical Bulletin of the Ministry of Health, Annual reports from the National Atomic Energy Agency and Central Statistics Office. Additionally, national and provincial reports were used, as well as those received from the European Society of Nuclear Medicine. At present, the Public Healthcare system in Poland has 55 nuclear medicine departmental facilities operating and 8 that are private/non-public. These are staffed by 252 doctors, of whom 151 are qualified as nuclear medicine specialists; constituting one specialist per 300,000 inhabitants. In addition, 170 highly qualified staff (biologists, chemists, physicists, electronics engineers and IT specialists) provide indispensable scientific/operational support and are vital for the development of nuclear medicine departments. They are mainly responsible for ensuring that all equipment functions effectively and for developing new diagnostic techniques, together with new radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, there are approximately 500 other staff at intermediate-level also involved in nuclear medicine departments, such as technicians, nurses and support workers. The survey demonstrated an average of 22 persons employed per nuclear medicine department. For all institutions, it is estimated that there are 127 gamma cameras, 10 PET/CT scanners and 16 hybrid SPECT/CT systems operating. In 2000, approximately 117,435 diagnostic procedures were performed, compared to 156,214 in 2008 and with the current number of around 170,000; up to 38% were simple thyroid scintigraphies, 25% were bone scans, 11% heart scintigraphies and 10% kidney scans. The number of diagnostic radioisotopic procedures in Poland are strongly expected to increase by 300% during the next 5-6 years. To meet this rise, additional equipment will thus be necessary, which includes having an extra 100 SPECT/CT gamma cameras. Source


Buczak-Stec E.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2013

Falls among elderly people causing hospitalization are considered one of the most important public health problems. Our objective was to analyse fall related hospital admissions among seniors (> or = 65 years old) in Poland in 2010. The analyses were conducted with regard to gender, place of residence and age. Additionally, the health consequences of falls among elderly people were studied. Injuries and other consequences of external causes, were expressed in the form of three-character ICD-10 codes representing the underlying disease (S00-T98). Data on hospital admissions resulting from falls among seniors were obtained from the database held at the Department - Centre for Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health Status and Health Care System by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Analysis has shown that the hospitalization ratio due to falls is much higher for women than for men. On average, 1 024 per 100 000 women are hospitalized due to a fall, while the number for men is 649. For every analysed age group women are at a higher risk of hospitalization due to a fall than men. In 2010 nearly 70% of hospital admissions of elderly people due to a fall were caused by a fall on the same level as a result of tripping or slipping (31 712 hospitalizations). No differences in relation to gender were observed. Risk of hospitalization due to a fall increases with age. For people over 80 years of age it is 2.5 times higher than for people in the 65-69 age group (1 459 and 570 per 100 000 respectively). It was observed that the length of hospital stay increases with age. There were no significant differences between the number of hospitalizations depending on the place of residence. The analysis showed that differences in the length of stay for women and men are statistically significant. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the lengths of stay depending on a place of residence. Almost one-third of hospitalizations (31.4%) resulted from femur fracture (14 356 hospitalizations). Women are more likely to suffer from a femur fracture. A comparison of results of research conducted, among other countries, in the United States, The Netherlands, and Denmark, as well as Polish demographic prognosis, has shown that an increase of fall related hospital admissions among senior citizens is to be expected in Poland in oncoming years. Source


Sadkowska-Todys M.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2013

To assess epidemiological situation of rabies in Poland in 2011. The assessment was based on the results of the data analysis from questionnaires (People vaccinated against rabies post-exposure surveys in Poland and people vaccinated against rabies after exposure in other countries) submitted by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and data from the annual newsletter "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011" (Czarkowski MP et al., Warsaw, NIZP-PZH and GIS) and epizootic data provided by the General Veterinary Inspectorate. In 2011, in Poland, 160 cases of rabies (in 2010 - 152 cases) were reported. Animal cases occurred primarily in the Malopolska province, where an increase in animal rabies cases has been observed since September 2010 and in Podkarpackie province. A single case of fox rabies was reported in Silesia, where there was no disease for many years. Rabies among terrestrial animals also occurred in the provinces ofLubelskie, Warmińsko-Mazurskie and Podlaskie. In other regions of the country there were recorded only isolated cases of bat rabies. In 2011, number of people vaccinated against rabies was 7 543 (in 2010 - 7,243), of which 300 (4%) due to exposure to the animals that were confirmed to have rabies. Among those vaccinated because of contact with the rabid animal, 68 people (over 22%) were vaccinated after contact with fox. As in previous years, people were mainly vaccinated after exposure to dogs and cats in which rabies could not be ruled out - 5 874 persons (78%). The number of registered animals with confirmed rabies remains at the same level and the disease epizootic situation is good. This is a consequence of the implementation of the oral vaccination of wild animals introduced in the country in 1993. Epizootic situation in the country has a small influence on the number of people vaccinated against rabies who have come into contact with the animal potentially infected with the rabies. Serum is given in a few cases, including a few people at contact with rabid animals or deeply wounded by animals in which rabies cannot be excluded. Source


Sadkowska-Todys M.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2013

The purpose of the study was assessment of the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in 2011. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of data from the bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland. 2010". information from the questionnaires of individual cases and epidemiological investigations of the outbreaks of trichinellosis sent by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and on data from Demographic Research Department of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the current case definition. In 2011. Poland recorded 23 cases of trichinellosis cases. The incidence was 0.06/100,000. There were reported 10 confirmed cases and 13 probable. There were no deaths from trichinellosis, but over 91% of infected persons were hospitalized. In 2011 three outbreaks of trichinellosis were recorded. One of them occurred in Dolnoślaskie district, where cases of the infection are recorded sporadically. The epidemiological investigations established that the cause of the outbreak was consumption of wild boar meat products, mainly raw sausage. Trichinella containing meat products are prepared primarily for personal use. but are also distributed among family and friends. The annually repeating outbreaks of trichinellosis mainly among family members indicates insufficient awareness of the risk of parasitic diseases caused by consumption of products containing raw or half raw meat of animals. Of the particular importance is to inform those who will give the carcases of animals to test about the limitations of the test method used. Source


Sadkowska-Todys M.,National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2013

To assess the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2011 as compared with the situation in 2010. The assessment was based on the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2010-2011 (MP Czarkowski et al., NIH and GIS), information from the forms of individual cases and epidemiological investigations forms on outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, which were sent by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology and data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to a surveillance case definition. In 2011, number of campylobacteriosis cases registered in Poland was 354, the incidence rate was 0.92/100,000. All cases were reported as confirmed. No deaths were recorded. More than 61% of reported cases came from two provinces--Slaskie 112 (31%) and Warmińsko-mazurskie 104 (29%). The highest incidence was observed in Warmińsko-Mazurskie (7.16/100,000). Hospitalized were 57.5%. The lowest percentage of hospitalization (31.3%) was in Slaskie. In six provinces all reported cases were hospitalized. Campylobacter species was determinated in 282 patients (79.7%). It was found that 270 cases were caused by C. jejuni and 12 by C. coli. The majority of cases (264, 74.6%) occurred in the age group 0 - 4, Among the cases were 217 men and 127 women. In 2011, one family outbreak was caused by Campylobacter. In Poland, campylobacteriosis is rarely diagnosed and recorded. Routine diagnosis of infection with Campylobacter is done in two provinces only. Source

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