National Institute of Public Health in Prague

Prague, Czech Republic

National Institute of Public Health in Prague

Prague, Czech Republic
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Kodym P.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague | Maly M.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague | Beran O.,Charles University | Jilich D.,Charles University | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

To determine changes in incidence of reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii infection, manifesting as toxoplasmic encephalitis, and to assess the immunological mechanisms controlling reactivation in HIV-infected patients, a Czech cohort of 502 HIV/T. gondii co-infected patients was followed for 2909·3 person-years. The incidence of toxoplasmic encephalitis between the periods before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was compared. Toxoplasmic encephalitis was diagnosed in 21 patients. In those patients the geometric mean value of CD4+ T lymphocytes was 12·6 times lower than in patients with non-reactivated T. gondii infection but an additionally significant decline in CD8+ T lymphocytes (3·3-fold) and natural killer cells (4·3-fold) was observed. This confirms the significance of these parameters. A twelvefold decrease in Toxoplasma reactivation incidence (40·2 vs. 3·4/1000 person-years) between monitored periods was seen. In the cART era, Toxoplasma reactivation was observed only in patients with unrecognized HIV infection or refusing therapy. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

PubMed | National Institute of Public Health in Prague and Charles University
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

A relationship between latent toxoplasmosis and the immune system during HIV disease is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this follow-up study was to characterize immunological parameters in HIV-infected patients with latent toxoplasmosis and noninfected individuals. A total of 101 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into two groups based on anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies: a group of 55 toxoplasma-positive persons (TP) and a group of 46 toxoplasma-negative persons (TN). Absolute counts of several lymphocyte subsets decreased in the TP group, namely, T cells (p = 0.007), B cells (p = 0.002), NK cells (p = 0.009), CD4 T cells (p = 0.028), and CD8 T cells (p = 0.004). On the other hand, the percentage of CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR significantly increased during the follow-up in the TP group (p = 0.003, p = 0.042, resp.) as well as the intensity of CD38 and HLA-DR expression (MFI) on CD8 T cells (p = 0.001, p = 0.057, resp.). In the TN group, analysis of the kinetics of immunological parameters revealed no significant changes over time. In conclusion, the results suggest that latent T. gondii infection modulates the immune response during HIV infection.

PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, National Institute of Public Health in Prague and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Central European journal of public health | Year: 2017

Human exposure to organic pollutants (some of them also called endocrine disruptors) can be associated with adverse metabolic health outcomes including type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to compare the urine levels of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in subgroups of patients with metabolic syndrome composed of patients with and without three important components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes).We have investigated 24 hr urine samples of 168 patients with metabolic syndrome from the Metabolic Outpatient Department of General University Hospital in Prague. Using standard metabolic syndrome criteria, we classified patients as dyslipidemic (n=87), hypertensive (n=96), and type 2 diabetic (n=58). Bisphenol A and 15 metabolites of phthalates were evaluated in relation to creatinine excretion. Samples were analysed with enzymatic cleavage of glucuronide using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in one laboratory with external quality control.Four metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate showed significantly higher levels in diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients (p<0.001, p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.005, respectively). The differences remained significant after adjustment to hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and BMI. No difference was found between either the hypertensive and non-hypertensive or dyslipidemic and non-dyslipidemic patients. There was no significant relation of bisphenol A level to diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and BMI.Urine levels of four phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics independently on specified predictors. Phthalate levels can be in relation to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients but this study is not able to show if the relation is causal.

Kyrova V.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague | Ostry V.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague | Laichmannova L.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague | Ruprich J.,National Institute of Public Health in Prague
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2010

Genetically modified (GM) plants are obtained by adding to them one or more foreign genes that encode new properties, such as tolerance to herbicides, resistance to insects and the ability to produce new substances. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of GM foodstuffs. Six different types of samples (soybeans, soya products, tomatoes, maize flour, rice and papaya) were collected at 12 places in the Czech Republic during the years 2002-2007. It represents a total of 1225 samples of foodstuffs.Samples were investigated for the presence of material derived from the following genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which are approved for food use in the European Union (EU): Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize lines Bt176, Bt11, T25, GA21, MON810, DAS1507 and some non-approved in the EU: maize lines Bt10 and starlink, rice, tomatoes and papaya. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for the detection of GM foods.RRS was detected in 14 (4.9%) samples of soybean out of 288 and in 88 (30.5%) soya products out of 288 samples. The amount of RRS in positive samples was determined by quantitative PCR. The content was in the range of 0.01-75.3% RRS. GM maize was detected in 5 (1.7%) of 288 samples. Maize lines MON810, Bt176 and StarLink were detected in the maize samples. GM rice was detected in 2 (1.9%) samples out of 102. All investigated tomatoes and papaya samples were negative for detection of GM.

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