National Institute of Public Finance and Policy

Delhi, India

National Institute of Public Finance and Policy

Delhi, India
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Kumar A.K.S.,UNICEF India | Chen L.C.,Harvard Global Equity Initiative | Choudhury M.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy | Ganju S.,Consultant Ingalls Hospital | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

India's health financing system is a cause of and an exacerbating factor in the challenges of health inequity, inadequate availability and reach, unequal access, and poor-quality and costly health-care services. Low per person spending on health and insufficient public expenditure result in one of the highest proportions of private out-of-pocket expenses in the world. Citizens receive low value for money in the public and the private sectors. Financial protection against medical expenditures is far from universal with only 10% of the population having medical insurance. The Government of India has made a commitment to increase public spending on health from less than 1% to 3% of the gross domestic product during the next few years. Increased public funding combined with flexibility of financial transfers from centre to state can greatly improve the performance of state-operated public systems. Enhanced public spending can be used to introduce universal medical insurance that can help to substantially reduce the burden of private out-of-pocket expenditures on health. Increased public spending can also contribute to quality assurance in the public and private sectors through effective regulation and oversight. In addition to an increase in public expenditures on health, the Government of India will, however, need to introduce specific methods to contain costs, improve the efficiency of spending, increase accountability, and monitor the effect of expenditures on health. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Bose S.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy
Economic and Political Weekly | Year: 2012

Despite the range of monetarist, micro-behavioural and cost-push explanations for the recent episode of inflation that were presented at a seminar in New Delhi last November, there was general consensus that monetary tightening had failed to have its desired impact. Further, it was unclear whether India could afford the concomitant growth slowdown. Instead, a shift in policy focus to agricultural production and the distribution and pricing of strategic food and fuel commodities was seen as a more promising option.

Patnaik I.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy | Shah A.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy | Veronese G.,Bank of Italy
Economic and Political Weekly | Year: 2011

Though monetary policy in India is not explicitly charged with delivering low and stable inflation, it still needs to choose a measure of inflation as a reference. Questions of timeliness, weights in the price index, accuracy of food price measurement, and inclusion of the prices of services are relevant to the choice of measure. This paper looks at detailed price data, expenditure patterns of households and the composition of different price indices available in India, and discusses policies on inflation measurement in other countries. Under present conditions of measurement, the consumer price index for industrial workers, despite some serious deficiencies, is preferable to both the wholesale price index and the gdp deflator as the headline inflation rate. Thus, macroeconomic analysis and policy thinking need to move away from a focus on the wpi to the CPI-IW.

Mukherjee S.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy | Chakraborty D.,Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The current study attempts to understand the relationships among Environmental Quality (EQ), Human Development (HD) and political and governance regimes in a cross-country framework through secondary data analysis. The underlying hypothesis is that in addition to income, as reflected from the literature on the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, several other factors, including socioeconomic (e.g. human development and corruption) and sociopolitical (e.g. ability to exercise democratic rights) factors, may influence environmental policy-making, and thereby environmental sustainability, in a country. The EQ (i.e. environmental sustainability) of the countries in the current study is denoted by their Environmental Performance Index (2008). Human development is represented by Human Development Index (2007). Democracy Index (2008) and Corruption Perceptions Index (2008) are considered as proxies for political transparency in a country and its susceptibility to rent-seeking activities, respectively. The cross-country empirical findings confirm the closer association between the socioeconomic and sociopolitical factors and sustainable development. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.

Pandey R.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

It is increasingly realized that despite rapid improvement in emission standards for new vehicles, emissions from automobiles will continue to be a major source of urban air pollution in the large cities in India. Proponents of inspection, maintenance, and certification (IM) for in-use vehicles believe that this is a panacea for all the problems. There is evidence in the literature to suggest that IM is both expensive and far less effective than other available policies. With public health and public money at stake, it is important to examine available alternative policies and instruments for reducing pollution from in-use vehicles. This article analyses these policies, and, on the basis of the main conclusions that emerge from this exercise, suggests the policies for reduction of pollution from in-use vehicles. © 2006, Springer Japan.

Goldar B.,University of Delhi | Pandey R.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

This paper analyses the issue of appropriate pricing of water for effectively controlling water pollution by distilleries in India. A major focus of the study is the practice of diluting effluent streams by clean groundwater to meet environmental regulations. The analysis is undertaken using a nonlinear programming model. The results indicate that under the command and control system of environmental regulation, or if it is replaced by fiscal instruments, groundwater must be appropriately priced, reflecting its economic cost, to ensure that the distilleries undertake pollution abatement to the desired extent. © 2001, Springer Japan.

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