Moreno-Coutino A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Villalobos-Gallegos L.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Journal of Addictions Nursing | Year: 2017
Introduction: The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a widely used six-item questionnaire, often used as a measure of physical dependence on nicotine, although evidence of its validity in Spanish-language studies is scarce. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of FTND in Spanish speakers. Method: We recruited 136 regular adult smokers to answer the FTND. We assessed the internal consistency of the FTND with a Cronbach’s alpha and convergent and divergent validity with the Pearson product–moment coefficient between variables of external criteria, both measure and nonmeasure related; the FTND items, and the total score. We performed a binary logistic regression model to determine predictive validity of the questionnaire, using the FTND total scores as an independent variable and cessation as the outcome. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis to assess the robustness of a single-factor model. Results: The internal consistency had a lower coefficient than current standards. The FTND was unable to predict cessation at any assessed time point. The FTND total score showed significant correlation with exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary cotinine, and self-report of cigarettes smoked per day. However, Items 5 (smoke in the first hours) and 6 (smoke if ill) failed to obtain a significant correlation with biological biomarkers. Discussion: Although the FTND showed an adequate construct validity, the results suggest that its convergent and predictive validity is limited; therefore, it might not be suitable for the Mexican population. More studies in other populations are needed to establish the generalizability of these findings. Copyright © 2017 International Nurses Society on Addictions.
Alcantara-Alonso V.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Amaya M.I.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Matamoros-Trejo G.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
de Gortari P.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Neuropeptides | Year: 2017
Early-life stress induces endocrine and metabolic alterations that increase food intake and overweight in adulthood. The stress response activates the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins' (Ucns) system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These peptides induce anorexic effects through CRH-R2 receptor activation; however, chronic stressed animals develop hyperphagia despite of high PVN CRH expression.We analyzed this paradoxical behavior in adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180. min/daily during post-natal days 2-14, evaluating their body weight gain, food intake, serum corticosterone and vasopressin concentrations, PVN mRNA expression of CRH-R1, CRH-R2, CRH, Ucn2, Ucn3, vasopressin and CRH-R2 protein levels.MS adults increased their feeding, weight gain as well as circulating corticosterone and vasopressin levels, evincing chronic hyperactivity of the stress system. MS induced higher PVN CRH, Ucn2 and CRH-R2 mRNA expression and protein levels of CRH-R2 showed a tendency to decrease in the cellular membrane fraction. An intra-PVN injection of the CRH-R2 antagonist antisauvagine-30 in control adults increased receptor's mRNA expression, mimicking the observed PVN receptor's up-regulation of early-life MS adults.An injection of Ucn-2 directly into the PVN reduced food intake and increased PVN pCREB/CREB ratio in control animals; in contrast, Ucn-2 was unable to reduce food intake and enhance phosphorylated-CREB levels in PVN of MS rats.In conclusion, the chronic hyperactivity of the stress axis and PVN CRH-R2 resistance to Ucn2 effects, supported impaired receptor functionality in MS animals, probably due to its chronic stimulation by CRH or Ucn2, induced by early-life stress. © 2017.
PubMed | University of Deusto, National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz, Ohio State University, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee and BioCruces Health Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists | Year: 2017
To provide a brief presentation of preliminary data on rehabilitation services provided by clinical neuropsychologists within the United States.This survey utilized data extracted from a larger international research study conducted in 39 countries including N = 173 professionals who reported to engage in neuropsychological rehabilitative services within the past year (63.6% female, 44.36 11.83 years of age) took part in the study.Neuropsychologists providing rehabilitation services in the United States in the past year were more likely to provide individual versus group therapy, likely to employ technology (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones/smartphones) as part of treatment services, see a range of diagnostic groups most prominently traumatic brain injury and stroke/vascular conditions, and work to address a range of both cognitive (e.g., memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning) and psychological (e.g., emotional/behavioral adjustment and well-being, awareness of disability/disease) issues.Prior published surveys suggest that clinical neuropsychologists have a growing involvement in rehabilitation services within the United States but with little clarity as to the actual characteristics of actual professional activities and practices. The present study aimed to provide such information and hopefully will be helpful in promoting additional systematic studies in this area.
Wolf S.A.,Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine |
Wolf S.A.,University of Zürich |
Bick-Sander A.,Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine |
Fabel K.,Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden |
And 10 more authors.
Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2010
Background: Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. Therefore we here focused on the effects of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) fed to female C57Bl/6 and Nestin-GFP-reporter mice on proliferation and maturation of neuronal progenitor cells and spatial learning performance. In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. Results: THC and CBD differed in their effects on spatial learning and adult neurogenesis. CBD did not impair learning but increased adult neurogenesis, whereas THC reduced learning without affecting adult neurogenesis. We found the neurogenic effect of CBD to be dependent on the CB1 receptor, which is expressed over the whole dentate gyrus. Similarly, the neurogenic effect of environmental enrichment and voluntary wheel running depends on the presence of the CB1 receptor. We found that in the absence of CB1 receptors, cell proliferation was increased and neuronal differentiation reduced, which could be related to CB1 receptor mediated signaling in Doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate progenitor cells. Conclusion: CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. The pro-neurogenic effects of CBD might explain some of the positive therapeutic features of CBD-based compounds. © 2010 Wolf et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry |
Vega-Rivera N.M.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Oikawa-Sala J.,National Institute of Psychiatry |
Gomez-Sanchez A.,National Institute of Psychiatry |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is affected in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Numerous evidence indicates that plasma levels of melatonin are decreased in depressed patients. Also, melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behavior. In addition, antidepressants revert alterations of hippocampal neurogenesis present in models of depression following a similar time course to the improvement of behavior. In this study, we analyzed the effects of both, citalopram, a widely used antidepressant, and melatonin in the Porsolt forced swim test. In addition, we investigated the potential antidepressant role of the combination of melatonin and citalopram (MLTCITAL), its type of pharmacological interaction on depressive behavior, and its effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we found decreased immobility behavior in mice treated with melatonin (<14-33%) and citalopram (<17-30%). Additionally, the MLTCITAL combination also decreased immobility (<22-35%) in comparison with control mice, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect after 14 days of treatment. Moreover, MLTCITAL decreased plasma corticosterone levels (≤13%) and increased cell proliferation (>29%), survival (>39%), and the absolute number of -associated new neurons (>53%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These results indicate that the MLTCITAL combination exerts synergism to induce an antidepressant-like action that could be related to the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This outcome opens the opportunity of using melatonin to promote behavioral benefits and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression and also supports the use of the MLTCITAL combination as an alternative to treat depression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olivares-Nazario M.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Olivares-Nazario M.,CINVESTAV |
Fernandez-Guasti A.,CINVESTAV |
Martinez-Mota L.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2016
Some reports suggest that older patients are less responsive to antidepressants than young adults, but this idea has not been fully supported. Here, we investigated the role of aging in the behavioral effects of the antidepressants, desipramine (DMI) (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FLX) (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) in young adults (3-5 months), middle-aged (MA, 12-15 months), and senescent (SE, 23-25 months) male rats in the forced-swim test. In addition, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed as side-effects. DMI and fluoxetine produced an antidepressant-like effect in YA and MA animals, although in the latter group, a shift to the right in the dose-response curve was found for DMI. Importantly, neither drug was effective in SE animals. Motor side-effects were produced mainly by DMI in MA and SE rats. Therefore, a decrease in the antidepressant-like effect is associated strongly with senescence as well as an increased vulnerability to motor side-effects, particularly of tricyclics. This study is significant because SE animals are scarcely studied in pharmacological screening tests, and our findings might be useful for improving antidepressant treatments for the increasing aged population. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Gomez-Sanchez A.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Ortiz-Lopez L.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2014
Melatonin, the main product synthesized by the pineal gland, modulates several brain functions through different mechanisms, some of them involving the activation or participation of calcium binding intracellular proteins, such as the alpha calcium dependent protein kinase C and calmodulin. Another calcium-binding protein is calretinin, which exerts an essential role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Melatonin favors calretinin-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of young mice but hippocampal neurogenesis and plasma levels of melatonin decrease during aging. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the impact of exogenous supplementation with melatonin in calretinin-neurons and their distribution along the dorsal-ventral DG in the hippocampus at three different time points (1, 3, or 6. months) after daily treatment with melatonin (8. mg/kg) in male Balb/C mice. We found an increase in the number of calretinin-positive neurons in the DG after treatment (>. 66%). Although a significant decline in the number of calretinin-neurons was found in both treated (~. 60.46-69.56%) and untreated mice (~. 68.81-70.34%) with respect to the youngest mice analyzed, melatonin still maintained higher number of cells in the DG. Also, the distribution of calretinin-neurons along the dorsal-ventral DG significantly showed more cells in the ventral-DG of mice treated with melatonin. Together, the data suggest that melatonin also acts on calretinin in the DG, supporting it as a molecule connecting calcium signaling and neuronal development. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Pleasure, transformation and treatment. Use of alternative medicines to treat emotional illnesses in Mexico City [Placer, transformación y tratamiento: Uso de las medicinas alternativas para problemas emocionales en la Ciudad de México]
Saavedra N.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Berenzon S.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2013
The article analyzes the way alternative medicines are used to deal with emotional problems through a model proposed during a previous study. The information was obtained from 36 social research interviews from Mexico City, it was analyzed using the categorization of meanings, within the model proposed by Bishop (2008). The practices and resources were used as complementary treatment, alternative or conventional, also as pleasurable experiences and procedures involving personal transformation. The first three types were used to treat specific illnesses; like pleasurable experiences, psychological health was sought after and with the last modality, orientation was found to intervene appropriately in a problematic situation. Bishop's Categorization proved to be useful for integrating practices that even though they are widely used and have social acceptance, they are ignored in the health field. With these practices it is pretended to enlarge the repertoire of care resources and satisfy the needs that the formal services do not cover.
Martinez-Levy G.A.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Cruz-Fuentes C.S.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014
The BDNF is required for the development and proper function of the central nervous system, where it is involved in a variety of neural and molecular events relevant to cognition, learning, and memory processes. Although only a functional mature protein is synthesized, the human BDNF gene possesses an extensive structural complexity, including the presence of multiple promoters, splicing events, and 3'UTR poly-adenylation sites, resulting in an intricate transcriptional regulation and numerous messengers RNA. Recent data support specific cellular roles of these transcripts. Moreover, a central role of epigenetic modifications on the regulation of BDNF gene transcription is also emerging. The present essay aims to summarize the published information on the matter, emphasizing their possible implications in health and disease or in the treatment of different neurologic and psychiatric disorders. © 2014.
Medina-Mora M.E.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz |
Real T.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Adicciones | Year: 2013
Mexico is a country affected by drugs in every aspect: it is a drug producing country of heroin, marihuana and methamphetamines, mainly for external markets but also for the growing internal demand; it is a transit country for cocaine that has found its way through the Central American and Mexican corridor on its way to external markets and for the internal supply. As a result of the increasing availability of substances and a favorable social environment, it has become a consuming country; drug experimentation use and dependence of illegal drugs, although still low, have increased. The abuse/ dependence of legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco are the main substance abuse problems; only the abuse of pharmaceuticals remains low and relatively stable, mainly as a result of low availability for medical purposes and therefore limited scope for deviation. Social costs are considerable, as happens in other countries in the region, violence being the most prevailing characteristic of the drug scene, increasing from 2008 onwards. Within these important challenges for health and security, it is also true that signifcant, continuous efforts have been made by demand reduction programs at the national level since1972 and adapted to the changing circumstances. This editorial seeks to tell the story of drug transitions in Mexico and the programs that have been implemented and discusses areas of opportunity for a new approach.