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Wolf S.A.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Wolf S.A.,University of Zurich | Bick-Sander A.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Fabel K.,Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden | And 10 more authors.
Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2010

Background: Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. Therefore we here focused on the effects of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) fed to female C57Bl/6 and Nestin-GFP-reporter mice on proliferation and maturation of neuronal progenitor cells and spatial learning performance. In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. Results: THC and CBD differed in their effects on spatial learning and adult neurogenesis. CBD did not impair learning but increased adult neurogenesis, whereas THC reduced learning without affecting adult neurogenesis. We found the neurogenic effect of CBD to be dependent on the CB1 receptor, which is expressed over the whole dentate gyrus. Similarly, the neurogenic effect of environmental enrichment and voluntary wheel running depends on the presence of the CB1 receptor. We found that in the absence of CB1 receptors, cell proliferation was increased and neuronal differentiation reduced, which could be related to CB1 receptor mediated signaling in Doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate progenitor cells. Conclusion: CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. The pro-neurogenic effects of CBD might explain some of the positive therapeutic features of CBD-based compounds. © 2010 Wolf et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Espinosa Cortes L.M.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran | Mora Rios J.M.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz | Salas Valenzuela M.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potentiality of an inter-disciplinary approach in the comprehensive understanding of the health-illness- attention process in Mexican damaged populations, one of them in a rural community in Oaxaca (Charco Redondo) and two communities in Mexico City (Xochimilco and Magdalena Contreras). The experience and knowledge (representations and social practices) are obtained from the perspective of the inhabitants, using a multi-method strategy. Shared theoretical and methodological references are used to review the empirical material acquired in three previous research studies. The inter-disciplinary approach focused on the historical, anthropological and psychosocial reinterpretation of knowledge and the population's trajectory in their search for attention, in order to achieve a broader, more integral understanding of the health-illness process that contributes to the design of policies meant to improve the health conditions of damaged populations. The article ends with some reflections on the scope, constraints and challenges of promoting inter-disciplinary research.

Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Vega-Rivera N.M.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz | Oikawa-Sala J.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Gomez-Sanchez A.,National Institute of Psychiatry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is affected in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Numerous evidence indicates that plasma levels of melatonin are decreased in depressed patients. Also, melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behavior. In addition, antidepressants revert alterations of hippocampal neurogenesis present in models of depression following a similar time course to the improvement of behavior. In this study, we analyzed the effects of both, citalopram, a widely used antidepressant, and melatonin in the Porsolt forced swim test. In addition, we investigated the potential antidepressant role of the combination of melatonin and citalopram (MLTCITAL), its type of pharmacological interaction on depressive behavior, and its effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we found decreased immobility behavior in mice treated with melatonin (<14-33%) and citalopram (<17-30%). Additionally, the MLTCITAL combination also decreased immobility (<22-35%) in comparison with control mice, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect after 14 days of treatment. Moreover, MLTCITAL decreased plasma corticosterone levels (≤13%) and increased cell proliferation (>29%), survival (>39%), and the absolute number of -associated new neurons (>53%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These results indicate that the MLTCITAL combination exerts synergism to induce an antidepressant-like action that could be related to the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This outcome opens the opportunity of using melatonin to promote behavioral benefits and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression and also supports the use of the MLTCITAL combination as an alternative to treat depression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Martinez-Levy G.A.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz | Cruz-Fuentes C.S.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

The BDNF is required for the development and proper function of the central nervous system, where it is involved in a variety of neural and molecular events relevant to cognition, learning, and memory processes. Although only a functional mature protein is synthesized, the human BDNF gene possesses an extensive structural complexity, including the presence of multiple promoters, splicing events, and 3'UTR poly-adenylation sites, resulting in an intricate transcriptional regulation and numerous messengers RNA. Recent data support specific cellular roles of these transcripts. Moreover, a central role of epigenetic modifications on the regulation of BDNF gene transcription is also emerging. The present essay aims to summarize the published information on the matter, emphasizing their possible implications in health and disease or in the treatment of different neurologic and psychiatric disorders. © 2014.

Medina-Mora M.E.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz | Real T.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz
Adicciones | Year: 2013

Mexico is a country affected by drugs in every aspect: it is a drug producing country of heroin, marihuana and methamphetamines, mainly for external markets but also for the growing internal demand; it is a transit country for cocaine that has found its way through the Central American and Mexican corridor on its way to external markets and for the internal supply. As a result of the increasing availability of substances and a favorable social environment, it has become a consuming country; drug experimentation use and dependence of illegal drugs, although still low, have increased. The abuse/ dependence of legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco are the main substance abuse problems; only the abuse of pharmaceuticals remains low and relatively stable, mainly as a result of low availability for medical purposes and therefore limited scope for deviation. Social costs are considerable, as happens in other countries in the region, violence being the most prevailing characteristic of the drug scene, increasing from 2008 onwards. Within these important challenges for health and security, it is also true that signifcant, continuous efforts have been made by demand reduction programs at the national level since1972 and adapted to the changing circumstances. This editorial seeks to tell the story of drug transitions in Mexico and the programs that have been implemented and discusses areas of opportunity for a new approach.

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