National Institute of Psychiatry

Mexico City, Mexico

National Institute of Psychiatry

Mexico City, Mexico
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Lasselin J.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Lasselin J.,Karolinska Institutet | Lasselin J.,University of Stockholm | Alvarez-Salas E.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Jan-Sebastian G.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Whereas it is well-established that inflammation and other immune responses can change how we feel, most people are still surprised to hear that, conversely, well-being and its violations also affect our immune system. Here we show that those effects are highly adaptive and bear potential for both research and therapeutic applications. The studies discussed in this review demonstrate that immunity is tuned by ones emotions, personality, and social status as well as by other life style variables like sleep, nutrition, obesity, or exercise. We further provide a short excursion on the effects of stress and depression on immunity and discuss acute experimental endotoxemia as a model to study the effects of well-being on the innate immune response in humans. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Breslau J.,University of California at Davis | Borges G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Tancredi D.,University of California at Davis | Saito N.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Archives of General Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Context: Migration is suspected to increase risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders after arrival in the United States among Mexican migrants. Design:Wecombined data from surveys conducted separately in Mexico and the United States that used the same diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive disorders (major depressive episode and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) among migrants after their arrival in the United States compared with nonmigrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Setting: Population surveys in the United States and Mexico. Participants: Two thousand five hundred nineteen nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico and 554 Mexican migrants in the United States. Main Outcome Measures: First onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder. Results: After arrival in the United States, migrants had a significantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than did nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to nonmigrants was restricted to the 2 younger cohorts (those aged 18-25 or 26-35 years at interview). In the most recent birth cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-5.53). Conclusions: This is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychiatric disorder betweenrepresentativesamplesof migrants in the United States and nonmigrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the United States on the mental health of migrants, but only among migrants in recent birth cohorts. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Vega-Rivera N.M.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Benitez-King G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Castro-Garcia M.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Ortiz-Lopez L.,National Institute of Psychiatry
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2012

Melatonin modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. Also, plasma melatonin levels and new neuron formation decline during aging probably causing cognitive alterations. In this study, we analyzed the impact of exogenous supplementation with melatonin in three key events of hippocampal neurogenesis during normal aging of mice. The analysis was performed in rodents treated with melatonin during 3, 6, 9 or 12 months. We found an increase in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus after 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment (>90%). Additionally, exogenous melatonin promoted survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus (>50%). Moreover, melatonin increased the number of doublecortin-labeled cells after 6 and 9 months of treatment (>150%). In contrast, melatonin administered during 12 months did not induce changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that melatonin also modulates the neurogenic process in the hippocampus during normal aging of mice. Together, the data support melatonin as one of the positive endogenous regulators of neurogenesis during aging. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Gomez M.L.,CINVESTAV | Martinez-Mota L.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Estrada-Camarena E.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Fernandez-Guasti A.,CINVESTAV
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Sex differences exist in the depressive disorder prevalence and response to treatment. Several studies suggest that females respond better than males to the action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), suggesting that gonadal hormones modulate mood and the response to these drugs. Sexual steroid hormones exert organizational actions (perennial and on early development) and activational effects (transient and on differentiated tissues). The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the forced swim test (FST) in animals without treatment and after fluoxetine (FLX, 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0. mg/kg). Initially, we compared male and female adult rats under control conditions or after altering their sexual differentiation process (at day 5 postnatally, PN, 60. μg of testosterone propionate to females and male castration to induce or preclude masculinization, respectively). To further analyze if the sex differences depend on organizational or activational steroid hormone action we tested the same animals before and after adult gonadectomy. To prevent variations depending upon the estrous cycle, control and masculinized females were tested in estrus. Control females showed lower immobility and required lower doses of FLX (5. mg/kg), to show an antidepressant-like effect, than males (10. mg/kg), even after adult gonadectomy. In control males adult orchidectomy prevented FLX's action. Neonatally masculinized females exhibited analogous levels of immobility than control ones; before ovariectomy they responded to FLX similar to controls, but after the surgery they did not respond to fluoxetine. Neonatally orchidectomized males exhibited similar immobility values and response to FLX than control females. The findings suggest that the sex difference in despair depends on the hormones organizational effects and, in males, the response to FLX relies on organizational and activational actions. © 2013 IBRO.


Borges G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Orozco R.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Rafful C.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Miller E.,University of Pittsburgh | Breslau J.,RAND Corporation
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Background Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the USA. Suicide rates vary across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the USA in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The aim of this report was to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the USA.Method Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for lifetime suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15 180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (CPES), a group of cross-sectional surveys.Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%) and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US born, but equalized over time after migration.Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are explained partly by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the USA. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Vega-Rivera N.M.,National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz | Oikawa-Sala J.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Gomez-Sanchez A.,National Institute of Psychiatry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is affected in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Numerous evidence indicates that plasma levels of melatonin are decreased in depressed patients. Also, melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behavior. In addition, antidepressants revert alterations of hippocampal neurogenesis present in models of depression following a similar time course to the improvement of behavior. In this study, we analyzed the effects of both, citalopram, a widely used antidepressant, and melatonin in the Porsolt forced swim test. In addition, we investigated the potential antidepressant role of the combination of melatonin and citalopram (MLTCITAL), its type of pharmacological interaction on depressive behavior, and its effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we found decreased immobility behavior in mice treated with melatonin (<14-33%) and citalopram (<17-30%). Additionally, the MLTCITAL combination also decreased immobility (<22-35%) in comparison with control mice, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect after 14 days of treatment. Moreover, MLTCITAL decreased plasma corticosterone levels (≤13%) and increased cell proliferation (>29%), survival (>39%), and the absolute number of -associated new neurons (>53%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These results indicate that the MLTCITAL combination exerts synergism to induce an antidepressant-like action that could be related to the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This outcome opens the opportunity of using melatonin to promote behavioral benefits and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression and also supports the use of the MLTCITAL combination as an alternative to treat depression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Borges G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Loera C.R.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Purpose of review To present a summary of estimates of the risk of suicidal behaviour (ideation, plan and attempt) among those with substance use disorders in the general population and risk estimates for those with acute alcohol and drug consumption (intoxication) immediately prior to a suicide attempt. Recent findings In Mexico and elsewhere studies have emerged on the risk of suicidal behaviour among those with substance use disorders that are not affected by treatment selection bias or by psychiatric comorbidity. In developed and developing groups of nations, alcohol use disorders were associated with increased odds ratio (OR) of ideation (range 2.0-2.5) and attempt (2.6-3.7), whereas drug use disorders were associated with increased risk of ideation (2.3-3.0) and attempt (2.0-4.0). Follow-up studies of general population samples reported an OR for drug use disorders from 1.9 to 3.7 for ideation, and an OR of 3.0 for attempt. Alcohol dependence increased suicide ideation with an OR of 1.5. Those drinking alcohol prior to the suicide attempt had ORs in the range of 6.2-9.6. This increase may have a dose-response relationship. We found no studies providing risk estimates for drug use prior to a suicide attempt. Summary Current evidence points to a causal role of alcohol and drug use disorders exerting a distal effect on suicidal behaviour. Evidence for the proximal role of alcohol and drug use, as triggers of suicidal behaviour, are still very limited in number, analytical techniques and scope of substances other than alcohol. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health π Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 0951-7367.


Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Ortiz-Lopez L.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Dominguez-Alonso A.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Benitez-King G.A.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Kempermann G.,Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2011

In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the postmitotic maturation and survival phase is associated with dendrite maturation. Melatonin modulates the survival of new neurons with relative specificity. During this phase, the new neurons express microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). Here, we show that the entire population of cells expressing DCX is increased after 14 days of treatment with melatonin. As melatonin also affects microtubule polymerization which is important for neuritogenesis and dendritogenesis, we studied the consequences of chronic melatonin administration on dendrite maturation of DCX-positive cells. Treatment with melatonin increased the number of DCX-positive immature neurons with more complex dendrites. Sholl analysis revealed that melatonin treatment lead to greater complexity of the dendritic tree. In addition, melatonin increased the total volume of the granular cell layer. Besides its survival-promoting effect, melatonin thus also increases dendritic maturation in adult neurogenesis. This might open the opportunity of using melatonin as an adjuvant in attempts to extrinsically stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in neuropsychiatric disease, dementia or cognitive ageing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Recamier-Carballo S.,CINVESTAV | Estrada-Camarena E.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Reyes R.,CINVESTAV | Fernandez-Guasti A.,CINVESTAV
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2012

The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E2) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E2 (5 and 10μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25mg/kg) and E2 (2.5μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E2 (2.5μg/rat) with FLX (1.25mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E2 and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Vega-Rivera N.M.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Vega-Rivera N.M.,CINVESTAV | Fernandez-Guasti A.,CINVESTAV | Ramirez-Rodriguez G.,National Institute of Psychiatry | Estrada-Camarena E.,National Institute of Psychiatry
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

Most studies relating experimental depression and neurogenesis use mainly male rodents subjected to models of chronic stress. The forced swimming test (FST) is a widely utilized model of acute stress, but its effects on the neurogenic process in the hippocampus using females in different endocrine conditions has not been explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell proliferation and early-, short- and long-lasting effects of forced swimming (FS) on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats in two endocrine conditions: proestrous and ovariectomized. To determine cell proliferation we used the endogenous marker Ki67. Cell survival was established with the thymidine analog, BrdU (75. mg/kg, 2/12, i.p.), which was administered before FS to proestrous and ovariectomized rats. FS increased immobility and corticosterone levels in OVX but not in rats in proestrus. In addition, FS did not affect cell proliferation but significantly decreased the number of BrdU-labeled cells at 2. h only in OVX-rats, an effect that remained for 3 and 14 days after FS. Data are discussed taking into consideration the relationship between gonadal and adrenal hormones in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females. Our data also support the use of FS as a model for studying neurogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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