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Razzaque A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Nahar L.,East West University of Bangladesh | Mustafa A.H.M.G.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Ahsan K.Z.,The World Bank | And 2 more authors.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

The study examined noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults 25 to 64 years old of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System using World Health Organization STEP-wise methodology. The prevalence of smoking was found to be very high for males (53.9%) and it increased initially with age, whereas smoking was almost nil for females (0.8%). About 30% each of males and females used smokeless tobacco and its consumption increased with age. Consumption of vegetable/fruit is very low in this population (90% below recommended level), whereas one third of males and two thirds of female have low levels of physical activities. The raised blood pressure was more prevalent among females than in males (21.0% vs 12.5%, respectively) and the same was true for being overweight (13.9% vs 10.3%, respectively). Raised blood pressure increased with age but overweight did not vary by age for males, whereas it increased initially for females. Smoking (males) and use of smokeless tobacco decreased with increase in education, but both blood pressure and overweight increased. © 2011 APJPH.

Karim F.,Marks Dental College | Begum J.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Background: Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Objectives: The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the oral hygiene related knowledge among the population in a selected community before and after health education. Materials and Methods: A total of 106 respondents were taken purposively at South Pirerbag of Dhaka city. Baseline data were collected by pre-tested structured questionnaire. An educational intervention program was conducted by dividing the respondents into seven groups, 15 in each group; method was group discussion and lecture; poster, model of teeth and brush were the aids. Post intervention data were collected by the same questionnaire. Results: Among the respondents, 61.32% were male and 38.68% were female, mean age was 46.25 years, 35.85% had primary level education, monthly family income was Tk 5000-10000 in 66.98%. Before intervention 64.15% told that teeth should be cleaned twice daily, 62.26% told teeth should be cleaned by brush and paste and 2.83% told teeth should be cleaned after breakfast and night; whereas after intervention the result was 91.51%, 85.85% and 67.93% respectively. Before intervention 66.98% stated that tobacco is hazardous to health but 32.4% have no idea about the type of diseases that occur due to tobacco; whereas after intervention 89.62% told that tobacco is hazardous to health and most of them had idea about harmful effect of tobacco. Conclusion: Educational intervention program is effective to improve the knowledge of the respondents about oral hygiene. © 2014, Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

Alim Md.A.,Nagoya University | Sarker M.A.B.,Nagoya University | Selim S.,Directorate General of Health Services | Karim Md.R.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: Burning of biomass fuel (cow-dung, crop residue, dried leaves, wood, etc.) in the kitchen releases smoke, which may impair the respiratory functions of women cooking there. This paper aimed to compare the respiratory symptoms between biomass fuel users and gas fuel users in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews and chest examination of 224 adult women using biomass fuel in a rural village and 196 adult women using gas fuel in an urban area. Results: The prevalence of respiratory involvement (at least one among nine symptoms and two diseases) was significantly higher among biomass users than among gas users (29.9 vs. 11.2 %). After adjustment for potential confounders by a logistic model, the odds ratio (OR) of the biomass users for the respiratory involvement was significantly higher (OR = 3.23, 95 % confidence interval 1.30-8.01). The biomass fuel use elevated symptoms/diseases significantly; the adjusted OR was 3.04 for morning cough, 7.41 for nasal allergy, and 5.94 for chronic bronchitis. The mean peak expiratory flow rate of biomass users (253.83 l/min) was significantly lower than that of gas users (282.37 l/min). Conclusions: The study shows significant association between biomass fuel use and respiratory involvement among rural women in Bangladesh, although the potential confounding of urban/rural residency could not be ruled out in the analysis. The use of smoke-free stoves and adequate ventilation along with health education to the rural population to increase awareness about the health effects of indoor biomass fuel use might have roles to prevent these involvements. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.

Karim M.R.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Rahman M.A.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Mamun S.A.A.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Alam M.A.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Akhter S.,AMC
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin | Year: 2012

Childhood tuberculosis is one of the major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity though much neglected within our National Tuberculosis Control Program. This case control study was carried out to identify the risk factors for tuberculosis among children. Cases (n=95) and controls (n=94) were selected from Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centers of four upazillas of Dhaka and Gazipur districts. Cases were childhood tuberculosis patient, who were test positive by sputum microscopy from January to May, 2011 and controls were children who visited DOTS laboratory suspecting tuberculosis infection but were sputum negative. Both cases and controls were selected from the sputum examination registers and were traced at home for exposure data. The study showed more girls were infected than boys. Several socio demographic and environmental factors were found to be associated with the development of childhood tuberculosis. Logistic regression model was constructed to find out the important predictors which revealed age, education of the respondents, indoor environment and contact pattern were significantly associated with childhood tuberculosis. Children more than 14 years of age had 6.25 times higher risk of developing childhood tuberculosis; (Odds ratio=6.25; 95% CI for OR=2.00 to 19.55), Children completed primary education had 3.12 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis, (Odds ratio=.32; 95% CI for OR=.10 to 1.00). Those who resided in better in-house environment had 4.35 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis (Odds ratio=.23; 95% CI for OR=.06 to .95) and children came in contact with source tuberculosis cases who were their relatives or neighbors were 5.26 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis than being in contact with family members with TB (Odds ratio=.19; 95% CI for OR=.07 to .49). Contact Screening should be incorporated in National TB program for early detection and effective treatment of tuberculosis. Improvement of indoor environment and ventilation status of the bedroom might reduce the risk of developing childhood tuberculosis.

Rahman R.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College | Faiz M.A.,Sir Salimullah Medical College | Selim S.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College | Rahman B.,University of New South Wales | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4 / 100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2 /100,000 person years). Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71%) receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eightysix percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. Conclusions/Significance: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted. © 2010 Rahman et al.

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