National Institute of Plant Health Management

Rajendranagar, India

National Institute of Plant Health Management

Rajendranagar, India
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Sain S.K.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Sain S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | Pandey A.K.,National Institute of Plant Health Management
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2016

Three Trichoderma harzianum isolates viz., Th-Sks, Th-Ke and Th-Ar collected from respective states of India viz., Rajasthan, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh were evaluated for the management of six fungal diseases namely damping off, Fusarium wilt, Rhizoctonia wilt, early leaf spot, late blight and Septoria leaf spot in tomato. During in vitro analysis, T. harzianum isolates inhibited the pathogens’ growth. Isolate Th-Sks was the most virulent antagonist against all the test pathogens and exhibited maximum of 79.47% growth inhibition of Phytophthora infestans. Isolate Th-Sks proved most effective at suppression efficacy in the range of 95–100% and 91–100% against all diseases under glasshouse and in the field conditions, respectively. Tomato seeds treatment with isolate Th-Sks also promoted plant height (78.23 cm) and fruits yield (290 g/plant) during field trial and data were found to be not-significantly different from other isolates. Thus, it is concluded that isolate Th-Sks can be utilised as a biocontrol agent for management of fungal diseases in tomato. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Boina D.R.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Bloomquist J.R.,University of Florida
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Madhiyazhagan P.,Bharathiar University | Murugan K.,Bharathiar University | Kumar A.N.,Periyar University | Nataraj T.,Bharathiar University | And 12 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using the aqueous extract of the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The production of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV–vis spectrophotometry. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and mean size was 43–79 nm. Toxicity of AgNP was assessed against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. In laboratory, AgNP were highly toxic against larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species. Maximum efficacy was observed against A. stephensi larvae, with LC50 ranging from 16.156 ppm (larva I) to 28.881 ppm (pupa). In the field, a single treatment with AgNP (10 × LC50) in water storage reservoirs was effective against the three mosquito vectors, allowing complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100 % after treatment with 30 ppm of AgNP. Ovideterrence assays highlighted that 10 ppm of AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70 % in A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus (OAI = −0.61, −0.63, and −0.58, respectively). Antibacterial properties of AgNP were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. AgNP tested at 50 ppm evoked growth inhibition zones larger than 5 mm in all tested bacteria. Overall, the chance to use S. muticum-synthesized AgNP for control of mosquito vectors seems promising since they are effective at low doses and may constitute an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. This is the first report about ovicidal activity of metal nanoparticles against mosquito vectors. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Fabrick J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ponnuraj J.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Singh A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tanwar R.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop.


Grover M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Madhubala R.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Ali S.Z.,Agri Biotech Foundation | Yadav S.K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2014

Microorganisms isolated from stressed ecosystem may prove as ideal candidates for development of bio-inoculants for stressed agricultural production systems. In the present study, moisture stress tolerant rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum, pigeonpea, and cowpea grown under semiarid conditions in India. Four isolates KB122, KB129, KB133, and KB142 from sorghum rhizosphere exhibited plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and moisture stress. These isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were evaluated for growth promotion of sorghum seedlings under two different moisture stress conditions (set-I, continuous 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experiment and set-II, 75% soil WHC for 27 days followed by no irrigation for 5 days) under greenhouse conditions. Plate count and scanning electron microscope studies indicated successful root surface colonization by inoculated bacteria. Plants inoculated with Bacillus spp. strains showed better growth in terms of shoot length and root biomass with dark greenish leaves due to high chlorophyll content while un-inoculated plants showed rolling of the leaves, stunted appearance, and wilting under both stress conditions. Inoculation also improved leaf relative water content and soil moisture content. However, variation in proline and sugar content in the different treatments under two stress conditions indicated differential effect of microbial treatments on plant physiological parameters under stress conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Subramanyam B.,Kansas State University | Boina D.R.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Sehgal B.,Kansas State University | Lazzari F.,Kansas State University
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

The efficacy of partial treatment of wheat with spinosad against adults of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, was evaluated by mixing spinosad-treated and untreated wheat kernels in varying proportions. Spinosad was applied to wheat kernels either by dipping in 1mg (a.i.) ml-1 spinosad solution for 1min or admixed with dry and liquid spinsoad formulations at 0.1 and the labeled rate of 1mg (a.i.) kg-1 of wheat. In the kernel dipping method, the percentage of kernels treated was increased from 10 to 100 in 10% increments, while keeping the total number of kernels at either 10 or 100. The mortality of introduced adults in independent samples was observed over time at 1-209h post-infestation. In the admixture method, the percentage of spinosad-treated wheat ranged from 10 to 100 in 10% increments by varying amounts of spinosad-treated and untreated wheat to form a total of 50g. Mortality of introduced R. dominica adults was determined after 1, 3, 5, and 7d. In the kernel dipping method, there was an inverse relationship between lethal times for 50 and 95% mortality of R. dominica adults and percentage of kernels treated. In the admixture method, adult mortality increased with an increase in spinosad rate, exposure time, and percentage of kernels treated. The liquid formulation was more effective against R.dominica than the dry formulation. At the labeled rate of 1mg (a.i.) kg-1, treating 20-90% of the kernels with liquid or dry formulation of spinosad was as good as treating 100% of the kernels in controlling R.dominica adults within 3-5d. In practical situations where uneven distribution of spinosad on kernels is expected, complete control of R. dominica adults can be achieved if more than 50% of the kernels receive spinosad treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Rao N.S.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Sakthivel,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Rao A.M.K.M.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Mayline T.S.,National Institute of Plant Health Management
Pestology | Year: 2014

Rodent infestation measurement is very essential for planning and monitoring the rodent management success while employing various management techniques. Tracking method is being used to measure the levels of rodent infestation in residential premises and storage. An attempt was made in the study to screen different tracking substances Natural colouring material (rangoli) applied on vinyl tiles using alcohol, developed clear foot prints and tail marks of rodents with highest tracking index of 95%. There was no much difference was noticed in the tracking from two commensal rodents; house rat, Rattus rattus and House mouse, Mus musculus indeed from 1dt day to 5th day of testing, revealed that these two rodent species did not show new object reaction towards these tracking materials. These tracking tiles found easy to carry and to wash for re use.


Sakthivel,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Rao A.M.K.M.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Rao N.S.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Reddy P.,National Institute of Plant Health Management
Pestology | Year: 2013

Ecodon a plant based chemical was proved to be very effective in repelling rodents and wild boar from the crop fields and minimize damage to the crops. It is a Area Repellent containing Ricinolic acid, emulsifier and eco-friendly non-poisonous organic ingredients. Wild boar damage to agricultural crops is wide spread in forest fringe areas. The details of their damage propensity are not much studied. An attempt was made in the present study to estimate their damage in Sorghum crop around Hyderabad. An attempt was also made to evaluate the repellency against the wild boars in Sorghum crop using castor based repellent treated jute rope. It was recorded that after the tying of the repellent treated rope on the periphery of sorghum plots, wild boar damage was totally absent inside the crop, although the symptoms of their visit around the fields were existing. These observations indicate that the repellent was effective to prevent the wild boar damage to the Sorghum crop. The cost benefit was found to be 1:5.89. The results are discussed in terms of its repellency against rodent pests also. The results have indicated a scope for using this repellent in Food and Pharma Industries also, where chemical pesticides are not allowed.


Sakthivel P.,Nehru Memorial College Autonomous | Sakthivel P.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Neelanarayanan P.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Mohan Rao A.M.K.,National Institute of Plant Health Management
Pestology | Year: 2011

Experiments were conducted on the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray), softfurred field rat, Millardia meltada (Gray) and Indian field mouse, Mus booduga (Gray) to establish their preference for either germinated or non-germinated grains - cereals (Paddy - Oryza sativa, Pearl millet - Pennisetum typhoides and Ragi - Eleusine coracana) and pulses (Green gram Phaseohis aureus, Black gram - Phaseolus mungo and Bengal gram - Cicer arietinum). The grains were tested separately as two-choice (germinated and non- germinated) tests and multiplechoice tests. In multiple-choice tests, the six grain types were provided together in different containers in the germinated form. The results of two-choice tests revealed that germinated grains were preferred to non-germinated grains by both sexes of three species of test animals. The differences between the quantities of consumed germinated and non-germinated grains were statistically significant (p<0.01). The results of Duncan's Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Tests based on germinated grains' consumption by all the three species of rodents were categorized into 4 subsets. The first subset consisted of green gram, pearl millet and ragi and the second subset had paddy. Considering the cost of all these grains, it is suggested that any one among them which is cheapest could be used as a rodenticide bait-base for the control of any of the three rodent pest species. However, this requires field based trials for making a final recommendation.


PubMed | National Institute of Plant Health Management
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2015

By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

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