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Garg R.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Hormones exert pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development throughout the life cycle. Many of these effects are mediated at molecular level via altering gene expression. In this study, we investigated the exogenous effect of plant hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, on the transcription of rice genes at whole genome level using microarray. Our analysis identified a total of 4171 genes involved in several biological processes, whose expression was altered significantly in the presence of different hormones. Further, 28% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses in the presence of any two hormones, indicating crosstalk among plant hormones. In addition, we identified genes showing only a particular hormone-specific response, which can be used as hormone-specific markers. The results of this study will facilitate further studies in hormone biology in rice.

Patel R.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a high-throughput means to generate large amount of sequence data. However, quality control (QC) of sequence data generated from these technologies is extremely important for meaningful downstream analysis. Further, highly efficient and fast processing tools are required to handle the large volume of datasets. Here, we have developed an application, NGS QC Toolkit, for quality check and filtering of high-quality data. This toolkit is a standalone and open source application freely available at http://www.nipgr.res.in/ngsqctoolkit.html. All the tools in the application have been implemented in Perl programming language. The toolkit is comprised of user-friendly tools for QC of sequencing data generated using Roche 454 and Illumina platforms, and additional tools to aid QC (sequence format converter and trimming tools) and analysis (statistics tools). A variety of options have been provided to facilitate the QC at user-defined parameters. The toolkit is expected to be very useful for the QC of NGS data to facilitate better downstream analysis. © 2012 Patel, Jain.

Muthamilarasan M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2015

KEY MESSAGE: Recent advances in Setaria genomics appear promising for genetic improvement of cereals and biofuel crops towards providing multiple securities to the steadily increasing global population. The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica, cultivated) and green foxtail (S. viridis, wild) including small genome size, short life-cycle, in-breeding nature, genetic close-relatedness to several cereals, millets and bioenergy grasses, and potential abiotic stress tolerance have accentuated these two Setaria species as novel model system for studying C4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Considering this, studies have been performed on structural and functional genomics of these plants to develop genetic and genomic resources, and to delineate the physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance, for the improvement of millets, cereals and bioenergy grasses. The release of foxtail millet genome sequence has provided a new dimension to Setaria genomics, resulting in large-scale development of genetic and genomic tools, construction of informative databases, and genome-wide association and functional genomic studies. In this context, this review discusses the advancements made in Setaria genomics, which have generated a considerable knowledge that could be used for the improvement of millets, cereals and biofuel crops. Further, this review also shows the nutritional potential of foxtail millet in providing health benefits to global population and provides a preliminary information on introgressing the nutritional properties in graminaceous species through molecular breeding and transgene-based approaches.

Patel R.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
DNA Research | Year: 2011

Normalization of quantitative gene expression data with a suitable reference gene is essential for accurate and reliable results. However, the availability and choice of most suitable reference gene(s) showing uniform expression across all the experimental conditions remain a drawback. We have developed a web server, PlantRGS (http://www.nipgr.res.in/PlantRGS), for the identification of most suitable candidate reference gene(s) at the whole-genome level using microarray data for quantitative gene expression studies in plants. Microarray data from more than 11 000 tissue samples for nine plant species have been included in the PlantRGS for meta-analysis. The web server provides a user-friendly graphical user interface-based analysis tool for the identification of most suitable reference genes in the selected plant species under user-defined experimental conditions. Various parameter options and output formats will help users to investigate desired number of most suitable reference genes with wide range of expression levels. Validation of results revealed that novel reference genes identified by the PlantRGS outperforms the traditionally used reference genes in terms of expression stability. We anticipate that the PlantRGS will provide a platform for the identification of most suitable reference gene(s) under given experimental conditions and facilitate quantitative gene expression studies in plants. © 2011 The Author.

Lata C.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Lata C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gupta S.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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