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Lata C.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Lata C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gupta S.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Garg R.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Hormones exert pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development throughout the life cycle. Many of these effects are mediated at molecular level via altering gene expression. In this study, we investigated the exogenous effect of plant hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, on the transcription of rice genes at whole genome level using microarray. Our analysis identified a total of 4171 genes involved in several biological processes, whose expression was altered significantly in the presence of different hormones. Further, 28% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses in the presence of any two hormones, indicating crosstalk among plant hormones. In addition, we identified genes showing only a particular hormone-specific response, which can be used as hormone-specific markers. The results of this study will facilitate further studies in hormone biology in rice.


Thakur J.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Yadav A.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Yadav G.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

The kinase-inducible domain interacting (KIX) domain is a highly conserved independently folding three-helix bundle that serves as a docking site for transcription factors, whereupon promoter activation and target specificity are achieved during gene regulation. This docking event is a harbinger of an intricate multi-protein assembly at the transcriptional apparatus and is regulated in a highly precise manner in view of the critical role it plays in multiple cellular processes. KIX domains have been characterized in transcriptional coactivators such as p300/CREB-binding protein and mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 15, and even recQ protein-like 5 helicases in various organisms. Their targets are often intrinsically disordered regions within the transactivation domains of transcription factors that attain stable secondary structure only upon complexation with KIX. In this article, we review the KIX domain in terms of its sequence and structure and present the various implications of its ability to act as a transcriptional switch, the mechanistic basis of molecular recognition by KIX, its binding specificity, target promiscuity, combinatorial potential and unique mode of regulation via allostery. We also discuss the possible roles of KIX domains in plants and hope that this review will accelerate scientific interest in KIX and pave the way for novel avenues of research on this critical domain. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.


Patel R.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a high-throughput means to generate large amount of sequence data. However, quality control (QC) of sequence data generated from these technologies is extremely important for meaningful downstream analysis. Further, highly efficient and fast processing tools are required to handle the large volume of datasets. Here, we have developed an application, NGS QC Toolkit, for quality check and filtering of high-quality data. This toolkit is a standalone and open source application freely available at http://www.nipgr.res.in/ngsqctoolkit.html. All the tools in the application have been implemented in Perl programming language. The toolkit is comprised of user-friendly tools for QC of sequencing data generated using Roche 454 and Illumina platforms, and additional tools to aid QC (sequence format converter and trimming tools) and analysis (statistics tools). A variety of options have been provided to facilitate the QC at user-defined parameters. The toolkit is expected to be very useful for the QC of NGS data to facilitate better downstream analysis. © 2012 Patel, Jain.


Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Ghanashyam C.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Bhattacharjee A.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the ubiquitous enzymes that play a key role in cellular detoxification. Although several GSTs have been identified and characterized in various plant species, the knowledge about their role in developmental processes and response to various stimuli is still very limited. In this study, we report genome-wide identification, characterization and comprehensive expression analysis of members of GST gene family in crop plant rice, to reveal their function(s).Results: A systematic analysis revealed the presence of at least 79 GST genes in the rice genome. Phylogenetic analysis grouped GST proteins into seven classes. Sequence analysis together with the organization of putative motifs indicated the potential diverse functions of GST gene family members in rice. The tandem gene duplications have contributed a major role in expansion of this gene family. Microarray data analysis revealed tissue-/organ- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns of several rice GST genes. At least 31 GST genes showed response to plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. Furthermore, expression analysis showed the differential expression of quite a large number of GST genes during various abiotic stress (20), arsenate stress (32) and biotic stress (48) conditions. Many of the GST genes were commonly regulated by developmental processes, hormones, abiotic and biotic stresses.Conclusion: The transcript profiling suggests overlapping and specific role(s) of GSTs during various stages of development in rice. Further, the study provides evidence for the role of GSTs in mediating crosstalk between various stress and hormone response pathways and represents a very useful resource for functional analysis of selected members of this family in rice. © 2010 Jain et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Muthamilarasan M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2015

KEY MESSAGE: Recent advances in Setaria genomics appear promising for genetic improvement of cereals and biofuel crops towards providing multiple securities to the steadily increasing global population. The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica, cultivated) and green foxtail (S. viridis, wild) including small genome size, short life-cycle, in-breeding nature, genetic close-relatedness to several cereals, millets and bioenergy grasses, and potential abiotic stress tolerance have accentuated these two Setaria species as novel model system for studying C4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Considering this, studies have been performed on structural and functional genomics of these plants to develop genetic and genomic resources, and to delineate the physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance, for the improvement of millets, cereals and bioenergy grasses. The release of foxtail millet genome sequence has provided a new dimension to Setaria genomics, resulting in large-scale development of genetic and genomic tools, construction of informative databases, and genome-wide association and functional genomic studies. In this context, this review discusses the advancements made in Setaria genomics, which have generated a considerable knowledge that could be used for the improvement of millets, cereals and biofuel crops. Further, this review also shows the nutritional potential of foxtail millet in providing health benefits to global population and provides a preliminary information on introgressing the nutritional properties in graminaceous species through molecular breeding and transgene-based approaches.


Patel R.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
DNA Research | Year: 2011

Normalization of quantitative gene expression data with a suitable reference gene is essential for accurate and reliable results. However, the availability and choice of most suitable reference gene(s) showing uniform expression across all the experimental conditions remain a drawback. We have developed a web server, PlantRGS (http://www.nipgr.res.in/PlantRGS), for the identification of most suitable candidate reference gene(s) at the whole-genome level using microarray data for quantitative gene expression studies in plants. Microarray data from more than 11 000 tissue samples for nine plant species have been included in the PlantRGS for meta-analysis. The web server provides a user-friendly graphical user interface-based analysis tool for the identification of most suitable reference genes in the selected plant species under user-defined experimental conditions. Various parameter options and output formats will help users to investigate desired number of most suitable reference genes with wide range of expression levels. Validation of results revealed that novel reference genes identified by the PlantRGS outperforms the traditionally used reference genes in terms of expression stability. We anticipate that the PlantRGS will provide a platform for the identification of most suitable reference gene(s) under given experimental conditions and facilitate quantitative gene expression studies in plants. © 2011 The Author.


Garg R.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Patel R.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Tyagi A.K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Jain M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
DNA Research | Year: 2011

Chickpea ranks third among the food legume crops production in the world. However, the genomic resources available for chickpea are still very limited. In the present study, the transcriptome of chickpea was sequenced with short reads on Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. We have assessed the effect of sequence quality, various assembly parameters and assembly programs on the final assembly output. We assembled ∼107million high-quality trimmed reads using Velvet followed by Oases with optimal parameters into a non-redundant set of 53 409 transcripts (<100 bp), representing about 28 Mb of unique transcriptome sequence. The average length of transcripts was 523 bp and N50 length of 900 bp with coverage of 25.7 rpkm (reads per kilobase per million). At the protein level, a total of 45 636 (85.5) chickpea transcripts showed significant similarity with unigenes/predicted proteins from other legumes or sequenced plant genomes. Functional categorization revealed the conservation of genes involved in various biological processes in chickpea. In addition, we identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts. The chickpea transcripts set generated here provides a resource for gene discovery and development of functional molecular markers. In addition, the strategy for de novo assembly of transcriptome data presented here will be helpful in other similar transcriptome studies. © 2010 The Author.


Kumar K.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Muthamilarasan M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2013

Reference genes are standards for quantifying gene expression through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); however, the variation observed in their expression levels is the major hindrance towards realising their effective use. Hence, a systematic validation of reference genes is required to ensure proper normalization. However, no such study has been conducted in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)], which has recently emerged as a model crop for genetic and genomic studies. In the present study, 8 commonly used reference genes were evaluated, including 18S ribosomal RNA, elongation factor-1α, Actin2, alpha tubulin, beta tubulin, translation factor, RNA polymerase II and adenine phosphoribosyl transferase. Expression stability of candidate internal control genes was investigated under salinity and dehydration treatments. The results obtained suggested a wide range of Ct values and variable expression of all reference genes. geNorm and NormFinder analysis had revealed that Act2 and RNA POL II are suitable reference genes for salinity stress-related studies and EF-1α and RNA POL II are appropriate internal controls for dehydration stress-related expression analyses. These qualified reference genes has also been validated for relative quantification of 14-3-3 expression analysis which demonstrated their applicability. Thus, this is the first report on selection and validation of superior reference genes for qRT-PCR in foxtail millet under different abiotic stress conditions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Patent
National Institute Of Plant Genome Research Nipgr | Date: 2012-04-19

The present invention relates to recombinant strains of Vibrio spp, which are unable to utilize the amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as a sole carbon source. This inability to utilize GlcNAc severely impairs the colonization property of the recombinants. The present invention also provides compositions comprising these recombinant strains for use in pharmaceuticals and in providing immunity.

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