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Ohi K.,Osaka University | Ohi K.,Johns Hopkins University | Hashimoto R.,Osaka University | Ikeda M.,Aichi University | And 11 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

Cognitive impairments are a core feature in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits could serve as effective tools for understanding the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. This study investigated whether genetic variants associated with cognitive impairments aggregate in functional gene networks related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of a range of cognitive phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia were performed in 411 healthy subjects. We attempted to replicate the GWAS data using 257 patients with schizophrenia and performed a meta-analysis of the GWAS findings and the replicated results. Because gene networks, rather than a single gene or genetic variant, may be strongly associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia and cognitive impairments, gene-network analysis for genes in close proximity to the replicated variants was performed. We observed nominal associations between 3054 variants and cognitive phenotypes at a threshold of P < 1.0 × 10- 4. Of the 3054 variants, the associations of 191 variants were replicated in the replication samples (P <. 05). However, no variants achieved genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis (P > 5.0 × 10- 8). Additionally, 115 of 191 replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have genes located within 10 kb of the SNPs (60.2%). These variants were moderately associated with cognitive phenotypes that ranged from P = 2.50 × 10- 5 to P = 9.40 × 10- 8. The genes located within 10 kb from the replicated SNPs were significantly grouped in terms of glutamate receptor activity (false discovery rate (FDR) q = 4.49 × 10- 17) and the immune system related to major histocompatibility complex class I (FDR q = 8.76 × 10- 11) networks. Our findings demonstrate that genetic variants related to cognitive trait impairment in schizophrenia are involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate network. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.


Hoivik E.A.,University of Bergen | Bjanesoy T.E.,University of Bergen | Mai O.,Institute for Neural Signal Transduction | Okamoto S.,National Institute of Physiological science | And 5 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2011

The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein (SF-1/Ad4BP) is an essential regulator of endocrine development and function, and the expression of the corresponding gene (sf-1/ad4bp) is precisely regulated in a time-and tissue-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the basal promoter of sf-1/ad4bp is controlled by DNA methylation and that its methylation status reflects the expression pattern of SF-1/Ad4BP. Recently, three intronic enhancers were identified in the sf-1/ad4bp gene that target SF-1/Ad4BP expression to the fetal adrenal (FAdE; fetal adrenalspecific enhancer), to pituitary gonadotropes (PGE; pituitary gonadotrope-specific enhancer), and to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHE; ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus-specific enhancer). Here, we demonstrate that the activity of these enhancers is correlated with their DNA methylation status. We show that they are hypomethylated in tissues where they are active and generally hypermethylated in tissues where they are not active. Furthermore, we demonstrate in transient transfection experiments that forced DNA methylation represses reporter gene activity driven by these enhancers. These data directly demonstrate a functional significance for the enhancers' methylation status. Intriguingly, further analyses of the basal promoter in gonadotropes revealed that it is methylated in these cells, in contrast to other SF-1/Ad4BP-expressing tissues. Consistent with this, sf-1/ad4bp is transcribed from an alternative promoter in gonadotropes. Taken together, our experiments show that the tissue-specific expression of SF-1/Ad4BP is epigenetically regulated and identify tissue-specific differentially methylated regions within the sf-1/ad4bp locus that are essential for its transcriptional control. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.


Wake H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moorhouse A.J.,University of New South Wales | Nabekura J.,National Institute of Physiological science | Nabekura J.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies
Neuron Glia Biology | Year: 2012

Microglia cells are the immune cells of the central nervous system and consequently play important roles in brain infections and inflammation. Recent in vivo imaging studies have revealed that in the resting healthy brain, microglia are highly dynamic, moving constantly to actively survey the brain parenchyma. These active microglia can rapidly respond to pathological insults, becoming activated to induce a range of effects that may contribute to both pathogenesis, or to confer neuronal protection. However, interactions between microglia and neurons are being recognized as important in shaping neural circuit activity under more normal, physiological conditions. During development and neurogenesis, microglia interactions with neurons help to shape the final patterns of neural circuits important for behavior and with implications for diseases. In the mature brain, microglia can respond to changes in sensory activity and can influence neuronal activity acutely and over the long term. Microglia seem to be particularly involved in monitoring the integrity of synaptic function. In this review, we discuss some of these new insights into the involvement of microglia in neural circuits. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.


Phongphanphanee P.,National Institute of Physiological science | Phongphanphanee P.,Novartis | Marino R.A.,Queen's University | Kaneda K.,National Institute of Physiological science | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The superior colliculus (SC) is critical in localizing salient visual stimuli and making decisions on the location of the next saccade. Lateral interactions across the spatial map of the SC are hypothesized to help mediate these processes. Here, we investigate lateral interactions within the SC by applying whole-cell recordings in horizontal slices of mouse SC, which maintained the local structure of the superficial (SCs) visual layer, which is hypothesized to participate in localizing salient stimuli, and the intermediate (SCi) layer, which is supposed to participate in saccade decision-making. When effects of either electrical or chemical (uncaging of free glutamate) stimuli were applied to multiple sites with various distances from the recorded cell, a pattern of center excitation-surround inhibition was found to be prominent in SCs. When the interactions of synaptic effects induced by simultaneous stimulation of two sites were tested, non-linear facilitatory or inhibitory interactions were observed. In contrast, in the SCi, stimulation induced mainly excitation, which masked underlying inhibition. The excitatory synaptic effects of stimulation applied at remote sites were summed in a near linear manner. The result suggested that SCs lateral interactions appear suitable for localizing salient stimuli, while the lateral interactions within SCi are more suitable for faithfully accumulating subthreshold signals for saccadic decision-making. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley and Sons Ltd.


Nakano K.,University of Tsukuba | Toya M.,University of Tokyo | Toya M.,RIKEN | Yoneda A.,Japan Women's University | And 8 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2011

Proper cell morphogenesis requires the co-ordination of cell polarity, cytoskeletal organization and vesicle trafficking. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant pob1-664 has a curious lemon-like shape, the basis of which is not understood. Here, we found abundant vesicle accumulation in these cells, suggesting that Pob1 plays a role in vesicle trafficking. We identified Rho3 as a multicopy suppressor of this phenotype. Because Rho3 function is related to For3, an actin-polymerizing protein, and Sec8, a component of the exocyst complex, we analyzed their functional relationship with Pob1. Pob1 was essential for the formation of actin cables (by interacting with For3) and for the polarized localization of Sec8. Although neither For3 nor Sec8 is essential for polarized growth, their simultaneous disruption prevented tip growth and yielded a lemon-like cell morphology similar to pob1-664. Thus, Pob1 may ensure cylindrical cell shape of S. pombe by coupling actin-mediated vesicle transport and exocyst-mediated vesicle tethering during secretory vesicle targeting. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Numata T.,National Institute of Physiological science | Numata T.,Kyoto University | Sato K.,National Institute of Physiological science | Christmann J.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are key-players in proliferation and apoptosis but their molecular correlate remains obscure. Furthermore, the activation profile of HICCs is not well defined yet. We report here that, in HeLa cells, intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPr) and cyclic ADPr (cADPr), as supposed activators of TRPM2, elicited cation currents that were virtually identical to the osmotic activation of HICCs. Silencing of the expression of TRPM2 and of the ecto-enzyme CD38 (as a likely source of ADPr and cADPr) inhibited HICC as well as nucleotide-induced currents and, in parallel, the hypertonic volume response of cells (the regulatory volume increase, RVI) was attenuated. Quantification of intracellular cADPr levels and the systematic application of extra- vs. intracellular nucleotides indicate that the outwardly directed gradient rather than the cellular activity of ADPr and cADPr triggers TRPM2 activation, probably along with a simultaneous biotransformation of nucleotides. Cloning of TRPM2 identified the ΔC-splice variant as the molecular correlate of the HICC, which could be strongly supported by a direct comparison of the respective Ca 2+ selectivity. Finally, immunoprecipitation and high-resolution FRET/FLIM imaging revealed the interaction of TRPM2 and CD38 in the native as well as in a heterologous (HEK293T) expression system. We propose transport-related nucleotide export via CD38 as a novel mechanism of TRPM2/HICC activation. With the biotransformation of nucleotides running in parallel, continuous zero trans-conditions are achieved which will render the system infinitely sensitive. (Recieved 30 September 2011; accepted after revision 31 December 2011; first published online 4 January 2012) © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society.


Nakagawa H.,Nagoya City University | Nakagawa H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Hishikawa K.,Nagoya City University | Eto K.,National Institute of Physiological science | And 9 more authors.
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2013

Two-photon-excitation release of nitric oxide (NO) from our recently synthesized photolabile NO donor, Flu-DNB, was confirmed to allow fine spatial and temporal control of NO release at the subcellular level in vitro. We then evaluated in vivo applications. Femtosecond near-infrared pulse laser irradiation of predefined regions of interest in living mouse brain treated with Flu-DNB induced NO-release-dependent, transient vasodilation specifically at the irradiated site. Photoirradiation in the absence of Flu-DNB had no effect. Further, NO release from Flu-DNB by pulse laser irradiation was shown to cause chemoattraction of microglial processes to the irradiated area in living mouse brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of induction of biological responses in vitro and in vivo by means of precisely controlled, two-photon-mediated release of NO. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Kyoto University, Fukushima Medical University and National Institute of Physiological science
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2015

A lentiviral vector system provides a powerful strategy for gene therapy trials against a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors with different envelope glycoproteins not only confers the neurotropism to the vectors, but also alters the preference of sites of vector entry into neuronal cells. One major group of lentiviral vectors is a pseudotype with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that enters preferentially cell body areas (somata/dendrites) of neurons and transduces them. Another group contains lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different sets of rabies virus glycoprotein and VSV-G segments that enter predominantly axon terminals of neurons and are transported through axons retrogradely to their cell bodies, resulting in enhanced retrograde gene transfer. This retrograde gene transfer takes a considerable advantage of delivering the transgene into neuronal cell bodies situated in regions distant from the injection site of the vectors. The rational use of these two vector groups characterized by different entry mechanisms will further extend the strategy for gene therapy of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.


Sedzik J.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Sedzik J.,National Institute of Physiological science | Jastrzebski J.P.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Grandis M.,University of Genoa
Journal of Neuroscience Research | Year: 2015

Human P0 is the main myelin glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system. It can bind six different glycans, all linked to Asn93, the unique glycosylation site. Other myelin glycoproteins, also with a single glycosylation site (PMP22 at Asn36, MOG at Asn31), bind only one glycan. The MAG has 10 glycosylation sites; the glycoprotein OMgp has 11 glycosylation sites. Aside from P0, no comprehensive data are available on other myelin glycoproteins. Here we review and analyze all published data on the physicochemical structure of the glycans linked to P0, PMP22, MOG, and MAG. Most data concern bovine P0, whose glycan moieties have an MW ranging from 1,294.56 Da (GP3) to 2,279.94 Da (GP5). The pI of glycosylated P0 protein varies from pH 9.32 to 9.46. The most charged glycan is MS2 containing three sulfate groups and one glucuronic acid; whereas the least charged one is the BA2 residue. All glycans contain one fucose and one galactose. The most mannose rich are the glycans MS2 and GP4, each of them has four mannoses; OPPE1 contains five N-acetylglucosamines and one sulfated glucuronic acid; GP4 contains one sialic acid. Furthermore, human P0 variants causing both gain and loss of glycosylation have been described and cause peripheral neuropathies with variable clinical severity. In particular, the substitution T95→M is a very common in Europe and is associated with a late-onset axonal neuropathy. Although peripheral myelin is made up largely of glycoproteins, mutations altering glycosylation have been described only in P0. This attractive avenue of research requires further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Osaka University, Yokohama City University, National Institute of Physiological science and Dainippon Sumitomo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of human genetics | Year: 2016

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex group of clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Genetic studies have identified numerous candidate genetic variants, including de novo mutated ASD-associated genes; however, the function of these de novo mutated genes remains unclear despite extensive bioinformatics resources. Accordingly, it is not easy to assign priorities to numerous candidate ASD-associated genes for further biological analysis. Here we developed a convenient system for identifying an experimental evidence-based annotation of candidate ASD-associated genes. We performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing in 30 sporadic cases of ASD and identified 37 genes with de novo single-nucleotide variations (SNVs). Among them, 5 of those 37 genes, POGZ, PLEKHA4, PCNX, PRKD2 and HERC1, have been previously reported as genes with de novo SNVs in ASD; and consultation with in silico databases showed that only HERC1 might be involved in neural function. To examine whether the identified gene products are involved in neural functions, we performed small hairpin RNA-based assays using neuroblastoma cell lines to assess neurite development. Knockdown of 8 out of the 14 examined genes significantly decreased neurite development (P<0.05, one-way analysis of variance), which was significantly higher than the number expected from gene ontology databases (P=0.010, Fishers exact test). Our screening system may be valuable for identifying the neural functions of candidate ASD-associated genes for further analysis and a substantial portion of these genes with de novo SNVs might have roles in neuronal systems, although further detailed analysis might eliminate false positive genes from identified candidate ASD genes.

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