National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati

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Guwahati, India
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Thummuri D.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad | Naidu V.G.M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad | Naidu V.G.M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Chaudhari P.,Advanced Center for Treatment
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2017

Abstract: Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor, which plays an important role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by induction of anti-oxidant and cytoprotective enzymes. In the current study, we sought to investigate the osteoprotective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic (catecholic) diterpene. It is widely identified for its electrophilic nature under oxidative stress conditions and thus anticipated to counter osteoporosis by facilitation of Nrf2 signalling. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW 264.7 (mouse macrophage) cells and mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in the presence of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) (100 ng/ml). After treatment, osteoclastogenesis was assessed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay. We observed that 6 h pretreatment with CA (1.25, 2.5, 5 μM) decreased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and abolished RANKL-induced ROS generation by activating Nrf2 and its transcriptional targets. Further, CA also inhibited RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling. RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast related genes and transcription factors was also diminished by CA. In vivo osteolysis was developed in C57BL/6 male mice using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo μ-CT analysis of femurs showed that bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone architecture parameters such as trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) were positively modulated by CA in LPS-injected mice. The results obtained in this study support that CA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by maintaining redox homeostasis through modulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Key Messages: Carnosic acid (CA) inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.CA inhibits RANKL-induced oxidative stress by upregulating Nrf2 transcriptional targets.CA attenuates RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK signalling activation.CA decreases NFATc1 and c-Fos expression.In vivo μ-CT analysis reveals that CA prevents bone loss in LPS-injected mice. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Jangra A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Kwatra M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Singh T.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Pant R.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of malignant tumors. A major clinical limitation of cisplatin is its potential toxic effects, including neurotoxicity. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, has been reported to have the neuroprotective effect against neurological deficits. The aim of the present study was to determine the neuroprotective effect of edaravone against cisplatin-induced behavioral and biochemical anomalies in male Wistar rats. Our results showed that cisplatin (5 mg/kg/week, i.p.) administration for seven weeks caused marked cognitive deficits and motor incoordination in rats. This was accompanied by oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, NF-κB activation and down-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 gene expression level in the hippocampus. Edaravone (10 mg/kg/week, i.p.) treatment for seven weeks inhibited the aforementioned neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, edaravone was found to up-regulate the gene expression level of Nrf2/HO-1 and prevented the cisplatin-induced NF-κB activation. These findings demonstrated that oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammatory signaling mediators play a key role in the development of cisplatin-induced neurobehavioral deficits which were prevented by edaravone treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Samudrala P.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Augustine B.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Kasala E.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Bodduluru L.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | And 2 more authors.
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2015

Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB) and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.


PubMed | Gauhati Medical College, Maharshi Dayanand University and National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati
Type: | Journal: European journal of pharmacology | Year: 2016

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of malignant tumors. A major clinical limitation of cisplatin is its potential toxic effects, including neurotoxicity. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, has been reported to have the neuroprotective effect against neurological deficits. The aim of the present study was to determine the neuroprotective effect of edaravone against cisplatin-induced behavioral and biochemical anomalies in male Wistar rats. Our results showed that cisplatin (5mg/kg/week, i.p.) administration for seven weeks caused marked cognitive deficits and motor incoordination in rats. This was accompanied by oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, NF-B activation and down-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 gene expression level in the hippocampus. Edaravone (10mg/kg/week, i.p.) treatment for seven weeks inhibited the aforementioned neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, edaravone was found to up-regulate the gene expression level of Nrf2/HO-1 and prevented the cisplatin-induced NF-B activation. These findings demonstrated that oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammatory signaling mediators play a key role in the development of cisplatin-induced neurobehavioral deficits which were prevented by edaravone treatment.


Tyagi M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Kartha K.P.R.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2015

Abstract Various carbohydrate-anchored triazole-linked lipids prepared by solvent-free mechanochemical azide-alkyne click reaction, on analysis by TEM, have been found to spontaneously self-assemble in solvents leading to structures of interesting physicochemical attributes. Interestingly, analogous compounds based on different sugars (e.g., d-glucose, and d-galactose, as also d-lactose) assemble in patterns distinctly different from each other thus reiterating the fact that the structure of the sugar as well as that of the lipid are important factors that determine the size and shape of the supramolecular assembly formed. Besides, the molecular self-assembly was also found to be solvent-as well as temperature-dependent. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mundhe N.A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Kumar P.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Ahmed S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | Jamdade V.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati | And 2 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

Abstract Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug, but its clinical usefulness is limited due to dose dependent nephrotoxicity. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural compound with broad pharmacological properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of NDGA on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as well as its anticancer activity in rats bearing DMBA induced mammary tumors. The effect of NDGA on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by checking serum nephrotoxicity markers, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers level and kidney histopathology. NDGA induced amelioration of cisplatin nephrotoxicity was clearly visible from significant reductions in serum blood urea nitrogen (86.51 g/dl) and creatinine (5.30 g/dl) levels and significant improvement in body weight change (- 10.34 g) and kidney weight (728 mg/kg). The protective effect of NDGA against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in the rats was further confirmed by significant restoration of antioxidant enzymes like SOD (86.28% inhibition), inflammatory markers like TNF-α (34.6 pg/ml) and histopathological examination. Moreover, our results showed that NDGA potentiated anti-breast cancer activity of cisplatin through an increment in the expression of antioxidant enzymes like SOD (85.35% inhibition) in breast cancer tissue. These results indicated that NDGA potentiated the anti-breast cancer activity of cisplatin, which was clearly evident from the tumor volume and % tumor inhibition in breast cancer rats. The current study demonstrated that NDGA may modify the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in DMBA induced breast cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati and Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics | Year: 2016

Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is one of the key enzymes essential for the survival of Leishmania donovani in the host. Our study suggested that PDI is associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses in treated Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) subjects. The stimulation of Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with recombinant Protein Disulphide Isomerase upregulated the reactive oxygen species generation, Nitric oxide release, IL12 and IFN- production indicating its pivotal role in protective immune response. Further, a pre-stimulation of PBMCs with Protein disulphide isomerase induced a strong IFN- response through CD8+ T cells in treated VL subjects. These findings also supported through the evidence that this antigen was processed and presented by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-1) dependent pathway and had an immunoprophylactic potential which can induce CD8+ T cell protective immune response in MHC class I dependent manner against VL. To find out the possible epitopes that might be responsible for CD8+ T cell specific IFN- response, computational approach was adopted. Six novel promiscuous epitopes were predicted to be highly immunogenic and can be presented by 32 different HLA allele to CD8+ T cells. Further investigation will explore more about their immunological relevance and usefulness as vaccine candidates.


PubMed | National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati and Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences
Type: | Journal: Molecular immunology | Year: 2017

In the present study, the efficacy of Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase (LdPDI) as a DNA vaccine was evaluated in BALB/C mice. Mice immunized with the LdPDI-DNA construct were found to be the most immuno-reactive, as the construct induced higher T-cell proliferation. The increased T-cell proliferation was associated with a substantial rise in Th1 and Th17+ CD4 cell response and triggered a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells for the release of interferon-gamma along with a reduced splenic parasite load on Days20 and 60 post challenge (PC). Furthermore, the vaccine construct triggered increased interferon (IFN)-, interleukin(IL)-17A, and IL-22 release accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signaling and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling coinciding with an increase in the amount of nitrite and reactive oxygen species (ROS)in vaccinating the splenocyts. We summarize from our data that the PDI-DNA construct of Leishmania donovani has the potential to elicit protective immunity through the pro-inflammatory cytokines of CD8+ and CD4+(Th1 and Th17) following an intervention in the downstream signaling event of ERK1/2 (probably through p38MAPK signaling). Therefore, the study suggests a new control against visceral leishmaniasis in the future.


PubMed | Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, University of Kentucky, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati and Jamia Hamdard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurochemical research | Year: 2016

The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of naringin (NR) alone as well as its combination with sertraline (SRT) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. DOX (15mg/kg; i.p.) administration caused behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and monoamines alteration in male Wistar rats. NR (50 and 100mg/kg; i.p.) and SRT (5mg/kg; i.p.) treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as evident from elevated plus maze(EPM) and modified forced swimming test(mFST), respectively. NR treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced raised plasma corticosterone(CORT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-) and interleukin-1 beta(IL-1) levels in the hippocampus (HC). Furthermore, we found that combination of NR and SRT regimen ameliorated DOX-induced behavioral anomalies through modulation of the 5-HT level and mitochondrial complexes protection pathway along with alleviation of oxidative stress in the HC region. Therefore, NR treatment alone or in combination with SRT could be beneficial against DOX-induced neurotoxicity.


PubMed | National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati and Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences
Type: | Journal: Cytokine | Year: 2017

Adenosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside is one such extracellular signaling molecule whose role in the regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune pathogenicity in visceral leishmaniasis is indeterminate. Here, we have evaluated the adenosine in the plasma of 20 visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients during active disease and after successful treatment. We observed the elevated plasma adenosine during active VL disease (26.731.95M) and the level subsides as the treatment progresses and falls to the normal level after successful treatment (4.320.45M). We demonstrated a direct correlation between changes in the plasma adenosine level and the Th1/Th2 balance in VL patients and it was corroborated with in vitro experiment. Further, we delineated the molecular mechanism involved in the elevation of plasma adenosine during visceral leishmaniasis. Our results reveal that the elevated plasma adenosine level associated with pathogenicity and plays a critical role in skewing immune response from Th1 to Th2 type to influence the outcome of the disease.

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