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Chaudhary S.A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad | Shahiwala A.F.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery

Importance of the field: Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-orientated research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innovative drug delivery options. Out of which, medicated chewing gum (MCG) offers a highly convenient patient-compliant way of dosing medications, not only for special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as children and the elderly, but also for the general population, including the young generation. Areas covered in this review: In this review, various formulation ingredients, different manufacturing processes, and assessment of in vivo and in vitro drug release from MCG are thoroughly discussed along with the therapeutic potential and limitations of MCG. What the reader will gain: Readers will gain knowledge about the rationale and prominent formulation and performance evaluation strategies behind chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Take home message: The availability of directly compressible co-processed gum material enables rapid, safe and low-cost development of MCG as a drug delivery option. By MCG formulation, revitalization of old products and reformulation of new patented products is possible, to differentiate them from upcoming generics competition in the market. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Dash R.P.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc. | Chauhan B.F.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc. | Anandjiwala S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad | Nivsarkar M.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc.

An RP-LC method was developed and validated for comparing the pharmacokinetics profile of Vasa Swaras (leaf juice of Adhatoda vasica Nees., Fam. Acanthaceae) with that of the pure vasicine and vasicinone (chief marker compounds of A. vasica) upon oral administration of Vasa Swaras in rats, and also in different animal groups. Significant difference with p < 0.05 was found in the oral bioavailability of vasicine and vasicinone when administered as Vasa Swaras and as single vasicine and/or vasicinone. Vasicine and vasicinone were found to be more bioavailable from Vasa Swaras than pure vasicine and/or vasicinone. © 2010 Vieweg+Teubner Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH. Source

Mahesh Kumar G.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Cheruvu S.H.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sujatha D.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad | Sampathi S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering

The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate microparticles of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (AH) with different grades of ethyl cellulose (10, 18–22 and 45 cps) for sustained release and to enhance the bioavailability. The microparticles were fabricated using the solvent evaporation technique. Formulated microparticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for physico-chemical interactions and evaluated for particle size, percentage yield, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, in vitro and in vivo drug release studies using standard procedures. The mean particle size of optimized formulation was found to be 126.81±51.16 μm. The encapsulation efficiency of formulations was 56.35±1.06 to 81.66±4.26, with least for f1 and high for f8. The in vitro dissolution studies of AH microparticles showed sustained release with an initial burst effect when compared to pure drug. The burst effect may be attributed to drug crystals on the surface or embedded in the superficial layer of the matrix. The formulation containing drug: polymer (ethyl cellulose 45 cps) in the ratio 1:3 namely f11 showed similar in vitro release profile as that of the marketed formulation (mucolite SR) for 24 hr with a similarity factor (f 2), of 62.99. The optimized formulation sustains the drug release for a period of 24 hr with an increase in relative bioavailability of 1.58 fold compared to pure drug by in vivo. These results suggest the potential of ethyl cellulose microparticles as sustained release drug delivery system for AH with a cost effective approach. © 2014 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved. Source

Patel H.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad | Rathod R.,tel Pharmaceutical Education And Research Development Perd Center | Dash R.P.,tel Pharmaceutical Education And Research Development Perd Center | Nivsarkar M.,tel Pharmaceutical Education And Research Development Perd Center
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies

A sensitive, precise, and simple HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of rosuvastatin and fenofibric acid in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column maintained at room temperature, using isocratic elution with acetonitrile:0.1%disodium hydrogen orthophosphate buffer (50:50%, v/v) and detected using UV-Visible detector at a UV wavelength of 248 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction of both the drugs from rat plasma with ethyl acetate resulted in their high recoveries (≥80%). HPLC calibration curves based on the extracts from the rat plasma were linear in the range of 50-3000 ng/mL for rosuvastatin and 100-6000 ng/mL for fenofibric acid. The lower limits of quantification were 50 and 100 ng/mL for rosuvastatin and fenofibric acid, respectively. The precision and accuracy of the method were well within the accepted criteria (±15%) for biomedical analysis. Stability studies showed that both the drugs were stable in rat plasma for short- and long-term period for sample preparation and analysis. The described method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin and fenofibrate in Sprague-Dawley rats following a single dose, oral administration in combination. The application of the method confirmed its utility. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Saikia K.K.R.,Gauhati University | Borah V.V.,Gauhati University | Kalita M.C.,Gauhati University | Lahkar M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

Emergence of drug resistance amongst clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi has led to the need of search for alternate drug candidates. Medicinal plants are a source of antimicrobial agents and some of which have been used for centuries by tribes in Assam. In this study, extracts of six medicinal plants namely Cissus quadrangularis L., Moringa oleifera L., Ziziphus jujuba M., Cassia fistula L., Dillenia indica L., and Paederia foetida L. were tested for activity against clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts was tested for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins. The extracts were subjected to screening of in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against selected clinical isolates viz. Staphylococcusaureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans and Candida trophicalis. Allthe extracts exhibited inhibitory activity against the test pathogens. For positive control, a standard disc containing antibiotic drug Amoxicillin (10(g/disc), Kanamycin (30(g/disc) and Ketoconazole (50(g/disc) was used. Source

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