National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Mohali, India

NIPER Mohali is an Indian public Pharmacy research university, and a part of the seven schools, under India's Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers. The institute offers Masters and Doctoral degrees in pharmaceutical science. As an Institute of National Importance it plays an important role in the Human Resource Development for the ever growing Indian Pharmaceutical industry, which has been in the forefront of India’s science based industries with wide ranging capabilities in this important field of drug manufacture.The institute offers a 2 year PG degree course; MS in 9 disciplines and MBA . Wikipedia.

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Thanki K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Gangwal R.P.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sangamwar A.T.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Jain S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipientand nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based-nanocarriers in the bioavailability enhancement along with their clinical outcomes has also been discussed exhaustively. Furthermore, an insight on the various absorption mechanisms of these nanocarriers across the gastrointestinal tract has also been highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khan S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Jena G.B.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2014

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) also known as juvenile diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disorder that precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals by environmental factors particularly during early age. Both genetic and epigenetic factors are implicated in the beta-cell development, proliferation, differentiation and function. Recent evidences suggested that there is a link between diabetes and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote beta-cell development, proliferation and function as well as improve glucose homeostasis. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a short chain fatty acid having HDAC inhibition activity. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective role of NaB treatment on the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) in chilled citrate buffer, while NaB (500 mg/kg/day) was administrated by i.p. route for 21 days as pre- and post-treatment schedule. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, HbA1c, glucose tolerance, apoptosis, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p38, p53, caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) as well as histone acetylation were evaluated. NaB treatment decreased plasma glucose, HbA1c, beta-cell apoptosis and improved plasma insulin level and glucose homeostasis through HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation in diabetic animal as compared to control. NaB treatment improved the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as reduced beta-cell apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat by the modulation of p38/ERK MAPK and apoptotic pathway. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singh I.P.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Mahajan S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2013

Introduction: Berberine, a protoberberine alkaloid, and its derivatives exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine and current research evidences support its use for various therapeutic areas. Areas covered: This review covers the patents on therapeutic activities of berberine and its derivatives in the years between 2009 and 2012. An extensive search was done to collect the patent information using European Patent Office database and SciFinder. The therapeutic areas covered include cancer, inflammation, infectious diseases, cardiovascular, metabolic disorders, and miscellaneous areas such as polycystic ovary syndrome, allergic diseases, and so on. Expert opinion: Berberine along with its derivatives or in combination with other pharmaceutically active compounds or in the form of formulations has applications in various therapeutic areas such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, depression, hypertension, and various infectious areas. Berberine has demonstrated wide physiological functions and has great potential to give a multipotent drug if some inherent problems on poor bioavailability and solubility are taken care of. Additionally, polyherbal formulations with berberine-containing plants as major ingredients can be successfully developed. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Datusalia A.K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sharma S.S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Current Neurovascular Research | Year: 2016

Diabetes is associated with deficits in memory and cognitive functions and sustained inflammation. Recently, involvement of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) has been postulated in many cognitive functions, immune system and inflammation. Despite of role of NF-κB in inflammation, a large gap remains in understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of NF-κB activation in the central nervous system.In this study, we have evaluated the effects of NF-κB activation inhibitor on memory function, neurotransmitter levels changes and brain inflammatory cytokines in type-2 diabetic rats. BAY 11-7082 (BAY) was used as a pharmacological inhibitor of IκBα (inhibitor of kappa B alpha) phosphorylation to block NF-κB activation. Type-2 diabetic rats showed significant memory impairment at 15th week. Three weeks BAY treatment produced significant increase in Morris water maze test learning and memory performance. Diabetic animals also showed improved performance in passive avoidance and Y-maze test paradigm following treatment with NF-κB inhibitor BAY. BAY treatment did not show any significant effect on blood glucose and insulin levels. NF-κB inhibition significantly reduced neuroinflammation as evidenced by decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α levels. BAY treatment in diabetic rats also increased the phosphorylation of CREB which indicates that the NF-κB activation inhibitor engage a CREB regulated mechanism in-vivo. Moreover, BAY also reversed the alterations in brain glutamate and GABA levels in diabetic rats. These findings corroborate that NF-κB inhibition may be an effective treatment strategy in diabetes associated cognitive deficits. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Negi G.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sharma S.S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2015

Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been reported as a critical component of signalling mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions. Previous reports have shown that anti-inflammatory agents have a protective role in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Here, we assessed whether the inhibition of NF-κB cascade via IκB kinase (IKK) exerts any neuroprotective effect in experimental diabetic neuropathy. IKK inhibitor SC-514 (1 and 3 mg/kg) was administered daily for 2 weeks starting after 6 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Nerve conduction and blood flow were determined by Powerlab and LASER Doppler system, respectively. We evaluated the changes in NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2 expression by Western blotting in sciatic nerve. We found that IKK inhibition with SC-514 increased nerve blood flow and conduction velocity and improved pain threshold in diabetic animals. SC-514 also reduced the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylation of IKKβ in the sciatic nerve. Treatment with SC-514 reduced the elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), iNOS, and COX-2. SC-514 reduces the expression of NF-κB and its downstream inflammatory components which may be involved in the improvement in nerve functions and pain perception in diabetic neuropathy. From the data of the present study, we suggest that diminution in IKK can be exploited as a drug target to significantly reduce the development of long-term complications of diabetes, particularly neuropathy. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mittal A.K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Chisti Y.,Massey University | Banerjee U.C.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Synthesis mediated by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The reducing agents involved include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles have been the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of plant species have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here we review the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. Methods of particle characterization are reviewed and potential applications of the particles in medicine are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Karpe P.A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Tikoo K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Diabetes | Year: 2014

We have investigated the role of heat shock (HS) in preventing insulin resistance-induced endothelial dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, we report here for the first time that insulin resistance inhibits vascular HS protein (HSP) 72 expression. HS treatment (41°C for 20 min) restored the HSP72 expression. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed, insulin-resistant rats show attenuated angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7)- induced vasodilator effect, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. Interestingly, HS prevented this attenuation. We also provide the first evidence that HFD-fed rats show increased vascular DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and that HS prevented this increase. Our data show that in HFD-fed rats HS prevented loss in the expression of ANG-(1-7) receptor Mas and ACE2, which were responsible for vascular complications. Further, the inhibition of eNOS (L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), Mas (A-779), and SIRT1 (nicotinamide) prevented the favorable effects of HS. This suggests that HS augmented ANG-(1-7) signaling via the Mas/eNOS/SIRT1 pathway. Our study, for the first time, suggests that induction of intracellular HSP72 alters DNMT1 expression, and may function as an epigenetic regulator of SIRT1 and eNOS expression. We propose that induction of HSP72 is a novel approach to prevent insulin resistance-induced vascular complications. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association..

Datusalia A.K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sharma S.S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2014

Chronic type 2 diabetes (T2D) causes cognitive deficits which are debilitating to the young as well as the older population. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling has been reported to be impaired in insulin-resistant and T2D animal models. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of GSK-3β in cognitive deficits associated with T2D using SB216763, a GSK-3 β inhibitor. In high-fat diet-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) model of T2D in rats, cognitive deficits appeared on the 15th week after induction of diabetes. Treatment with GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 (i.p. daily for 3 weeks) reversed impaired cognitive performance in the Morris water maze, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tests. Administration of SB216763 also significantly improved acetylcholine esterase activity, GABA, and glutamate levels in the hippocampus and cortex of diabetic rats. Importantly, GSK-3β inhibition showed an increase in pGSK-3β and pCREB expression and reduction in pNF-κB-p65 expression in both hippocampus and cortex. Neuroinflammation was reduced by SB216763 in diabetic rats as evident from reduction in IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels. This study suggests that cognitive deficits associated with diabetes involved intricate compartmental interaction between transcription factors and neurotransmitter homeostasis/energy metabolism, and GSK-β might play a central role in diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Kaur J.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Tikoo K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Nanomedicine era is not far from its realization, but a major concern of targeted delivery still stands tall in its way. Herein we demonstrate the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of an RNA aptamer (Apt) conjugated to gefitinib-loaded poly (lactic co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (GNPs). Apt was selected through Cell-SELEX (systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) process against gefitinib-resistant H1975 lung cancer cells. The selected aptamer exhibited high specificity toward H1975 cells, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Software analysis using the MATCH tool predicted Ets1, a proto-oncoprotein, to be the target of the selected aptamer. Interestingly, the localization of identified aptamer varied in descending order of Ets1 expression, wherein maximum localization was observed in H1975 cells than in MDA-MB231, DU-145, H23, H460, A431, A549 and MCF-7 cells, and minimum in L132 cells. Furthermore, Apt-GNP bio-conjugate showed augmented anticancer activity specifically in Ets1-overexpressing cells. In addition, partial depletion of Ets1 in H1975 cells and overexpression of Ets1 in L132 cells reversed the targeting efficacy of the aptamer. Notably, a single intratumoral injection of the Apt-GNP bio-conjugate abrogated the growth of tumor in H1975 xenograft nude mice. Altogether, we present a pioneering platform, involving aptamers, which can be clinically used as a diagnostic marker for metastasis as well as an effective delivery system to escort the pharmaceutical cargo specifically to Ets1-overexpressing highly progressive tumors. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Date: 2013-03-07

The present invention relates to nanocrystalline solid dispersion compositions having discrete particles, wherein each discrete particle comprises crystals of at least one pharmaceutical active; veterinary active; nutraceutical active dispersed in the matrix of at least one crystallization inducer and/or coexisting with crystals of crystallization inducer, optionally along with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. The present invention also encompasses a novel one-step process for generation of nanocrystalline solid dispersions. The present invention is particularly of use for improving the dissolution of pharmaceutical actives, veterinary actives; nutraceutical actives exhibiting dissolution-limited bioavailability. Dissolution enhancement is because of the decreased crystallite size of the pharmaceutical active.

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