National Institute of Pediatrics

Mexico City, Mexico

National Institute of Pediatrics

Mexico City, Mexico
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Aguilar-Olivos N.E.,Liver Research Unit Medica Sur Clinic And Foundation | Oria-Hernandez J.,National Institute of Pediatrics | Ponciano-Rodriguez G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Chavez-Tapia N.C.,Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit | And 2 more authors.
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of pathologies ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis have increased risk of cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. About 25% of subjects with simple steatosis progress to steatohepatitis; nowadays, the detailed pathological factors influencing the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains unclear. It is proposed that genetic and environmental factors interact to determine the disease phenotype. Epigenetics could explain some relationships between genes and external influences. The epigenetic changes that have been related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are DNA methylation, onecarbon metabolism, histone modifications and the presence of micro-RNA. DNA methylation and micro-RNAs have been investigated in human samples, whereas histone modifications have only been studied until now in animal and cellular models. The aim of this study is to review the most relevant information about epigenetic changes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Silverberg N.,Mt Sinai St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital Center | Duran-McKinster C.,National Institute of Pediatrics
Dermatologic Clinics | Year: 2017

Atopic dermatitis is the leading cause of pediatric dermatology visits in developed nations. Recurrent, itchy rashes in typical locations and a family/personal history of atopy helps to identify children with disease. Most cases (85%) are diagnosed by age 5 years. Some comorbidities are age-based and may affect disease course. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy; corticosteroidphobia and side effects complicate use. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are alternatives to corticosteroids, especially in sensitive locations. Systemic therapies include antihistamines, immune suppressive agents, and phototherapy, with specific pediatric modifications. This article reviews the nuances and caveats of pediatric atopic dermatitis diagnosis and management. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Rivera-Mancia S.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez | Perez-Neri I.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez | Rios C.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez | Tristan-Lopez L.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez | And 2 more authors.
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2010

Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a worldwide health problem. Metals like iron and copper are essential for life, but they are also involved in several neurodegenerative mechanisms such as protein aggregation, free radical generation and oxidative stress. The role of Fe and Cu, their pathogenic mechanisms and possible therapeutic relevance are discussed regarding four of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Metal-mediated oxidation by Fenton chemistry is a common feature for all those disorders and takes part of a self-amplifying damaging mechanism, leading to neurodegeneration. The interaction between metals and proteins in the nervous system seems to be a crucial factor for the development or absence of neurodegeneration. The present review also deals with the therapeutic strategies tested, mainly using metal chelating drugs. Metal accumulation within the nervous system observed in those diseases could be the result of compensatory mechanisms to improve metal availability for physiological processes. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Errante P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Franco J.L.,University of Antioquia | Espinosa-Rosales F.J.,National Institute of Pediatrics | Sorensen R.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Condino-Neto A.,University of Sao Paulo
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are genetic disorders of the immune system comprising many different phenotypes. Although previously considered rare, recent advances in their clinical, epidemiological, and molecular definitions are revealing how much we still need to learn about them. For example, geographical and ethnic variations as well as the impact of certain practices influence their frequency and presentation, making it necessary to consider their study in terms of regions. The Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies was established as an organization dedicated to provide scientific support for basic and clinical research and to develop tools and educational resources to promote awareness in the medical community. Initiatives such as these are positively influencing the way PIDs are tackled in these countries, as shown by recent reports and publications. This paper provides a historical compilation and a current view of the many issues faced by scientists studying these diseases in these countries, highlighting the diverse scientific contributions and offering a promising perspective for the further developments in this field in Latin America. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Narvaez-Rosales V.,National Institute of Pediatrics
Skinmed | Year: 2013

A 33 year-old woman presented with numerous 3- to 5-mm red-brown and yellow-brown dome-shaped nodules, primarily located on the scalp, dorsal aspects of the forearms, and lower extremities (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Her lesions started to appear 5 years prior to her consultation with increasing number and without spontaneous regression. Findings from a previous biopsy revealed epithelioid dermatofibroma. The remainder of the physical examination was unremarkable. There were no familial cases of this condition (both the mother and two older sisters were examined).

Rodriguez-Jurado R.,National Institute of Pediatrics | Morales S.S.,National Institute of Pediatrics
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2010

Polypoid arteriovenous malformations, which are localized in the colon, are extremely rare in adults, with only 7 cases published to date. Here we present the case of a 6-year-old girl with a jejunal polypoid tumor that a sonogram and a computed tomographic scan have shown to resemble intussusception. Histologically, numerous large ectatic veins intermixed with small-caliber arteries, venules, arterioles, and capillaries were observed in the intestinal wall. A retrospective computed tomographic scan 3-dimensional angiographic reconstruction demonstrated that this may be a diagnostic characteristic. Clinical and morphologic comparisons with previously reported cases were discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Romero M.T.,National Institute of Pediatrics | Arenas R.,Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Fungal infections in humans are among the most prevalent diseases globally. Superficial invasion by dermatophytes leads to skin, hair, and nail infection. Even though they have usually been associated with extrinsic conditions such as immunosuppression, environmental factors, and contaminated individuals, objects, or surfaces; people are not equally susceptible to dermatophyte infection, even when they have the same risk factors. This commentary summarizes findings that provide evidence of familial or genetic predisposition to fungal infection, mediated by innate and/or adaptive immunity. © 2015 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Rojas P.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery | Montes P.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery | Rojas C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Serrano-Garcia N.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery | Rojas-Castaneda J.C.,National Institute of Pediatrics
Nutrition | Year: 2012

Ginkgo Biloba extract 761 (EGb 761) is a patented and well-defined mixture of active compounds extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves. This extract contains two main groups of active compounds, flavonoids (24%) and terpenoids (6%). EGb 761 is used clinically to treat dementia and vaso-occlusive and cochleovestibular disorders. This extract has neuroprotective effects, exerted probably by means of its antioxidant function. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2% of the population older than 60 y. It produces a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and depletion of dopamine (DA), leading to movement impairment. The production of reactive oxygen species, which act as mediators of oxidative damage, is linked to PD. This disease is routinely treated with the DA precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. However, this produces severe side effects, and its neurotoxic properties can be due to a free radical production. Thus, administration of antioxidant drugs might be used to prevent neuronal death produced by oxidative mechanisms. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased because of their suspected activity as carcinogenic promoters. We describe the studies related to the antioxidant effect of EGb 761 in an animal model of PD. It has been shown that EGb761 can provide a neuroprotective/neurorecovery effect against the damage to midbrain DA neurons in an animal model of PD. EGb 761 also has been found to lessen the impairment of locomotion, correlating with an increase of DA and other morphologic and biochemical parameters related to its antioxidant effect in an animal model of PD. These studies suggest it as an alternative in the future treatment of PD. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sanchez-Huerta K.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | Sanchez-Huerta K.,National Institute of Pediatrics | Pacheco-Rosado J.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | Gilbert M.E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for a number of physiological processes and is particularly critical during nervous system development. The hippocampus is strongly implicated in cognition and is sensitive to developmental hypothyroidism. The impact of TH insufficiency in the foetus and neonate on hippocampal synaptic function has been fairly well characterised. Although adult onset hypothyroidism has also been associated with impairments in cognitive function, studies of hippocampal synaptic function with late onset hypothyroidism have yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we report hypothyroidism induced by the synthesis inhibitor propylthiouracil (10 p.p.m., 0.001%, minimum of 4 weeks), resulted in marginal alterations in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and population spike (PS) amplitude in the dentate gyrus measured in vivo. No effects were seen in tests of short-term plasticity, and a minor enhancement of long-term potentiation of the EPSP slope was observed. The most robust synaptic alteration evident in hypothyroid animals was an increase in synaptic response latency, which was paralleled by a failure to maintain normal body temperature under anaesthesia, despite warming on a heating pad. Latency shifts could be reversed in hypothyroid animals by increasing the external heat source and, conversely, synaptic delays could be induced in control animals by removing the heat source, with a consequent drop in body and brain temperature. Thermoregulation is TH- dependent, and anaesthesia necessary for surgical procedures posed a thermoregulatory challenge that was differentially met in control and hypothyroid animals. Minor increases in field potential EPSP slope, decreases in PS amplitudes and increased latencies are consistent with previous reports of hypothermia in naive control rats. We conclude that failures in thyroid-dependent temperature regulation rather than direct action of TH in synaptic physiology are responsible for the observed effects. These findings stand in contrast to the synaptic impairments observed in adult offspring following developmental TH insufficiency, and emphasise the need to control for the potential unintended consequences of hypothermia in the interpretation of hypothyroid-induced changes in physiological systems, most notably synaptic transmission. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

Gonzalez Saldana N.,National Institute of Pediatrics
BMC research notes | Year: 2012

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) or Mononucleosis syndrome is caused by an acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus. In Latin American countries, there are little information pertaining to the clinical manifestations and complications of this disease. For this reason, the purpose of this work was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of infection by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children with infectious mononucleosis. A descriptive study was carried out by reviewing the clinical files of patients less than 18 years old with clinical and serological diagnosis of IM by Epstein-Barr virus from November, 1970 to July, 2011 in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City. One hundred and sixty three cases of IM were found. The most frequent clinical signs were lymphadenopathy (89.5%), fever (79.7%), general body pain (69.3%), pharyngitis (55.2%), hepatomegaly (47.2%). The laboratory findings were lymphocytosis (41.7%), atypic lymphocytes (24.5%), and increased transaminases (30.9%), there were no rupture of the spleen and no deaths among the 163 cases. Our results revealed that IM appeared in earlier ages compared with that reported in industrialized countries, where adolescents are the most affected group. Also, the order and frequency of the clinical manifestations were different in our country than in industrialized ones.

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