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Singh A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Ramesh V.,Safdarjung Hospital | Ramam M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2015

Background: Post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a sequel to visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and Africa. Histopathological descriptions of the condition are limited. Methods: Biopsies of 88 skin and 16 mucosal lesions were evaluated for histopathological findings on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Results: There were 71 (80.7%) males and 17 (19.3%) females with a mean age of 24.8 and 28.5 years, respectively. A past history of kala azar was present in 64 (72.7%) patients and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis developed a mean of 6.2 years after visceral leishmaniasis. Of the biopsies studied, the clinical lesions were macular in 14 (15.9%), papulo-nodular in 32 (36.3%) and showed both macules and papulo-nodules in 42 (47.8%). Follicular plugging was a common epidermal finding. A clear Grenz zone was frequently noted. The dermal infiltrates were arranged mainly in three patterns: superficial perivascular infiltrates in 16 (18.1%), perivascular and perifollicular infiltrates in 24 (27.3%) and diffuse infiltrates in 41 (46.6%) biopsies. Leishman-Donovan (LD) bodies were noted in 13 (44.9%) of 69 cases on slit-skin smear and in 25 (28.4%) of 88 biopsies. In 16 patients, where both skin and mucosal biopsies were available, LD bodies were identified in 10 (62.5%) mucosal biopsies as compared to 3 (18.7%) skin biopsies. Limitations: The retrospective nature of the study and the lack of controls were limitations. Conclusion: The various histomorphological patterns of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis are a useful clue to the diagnosis even when LD bodies have not been detected. This study also suggests that LD bodies are more frequently seen in mucosal biopsies in comparison to cutaneous biopsies. Source

Salotra P.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR
BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Majority of individuals with history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) exhibit strong immunity to re-infection, however, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. It is unclear whether CD8(+) T cells contribute to protection against Leishmania donovani infection through cytotoxic activity. The present study aims to evaluate immunological mechanism associated with resistance to the disease in healed VL (HVL) individuals and further, the contribution of CD8(+) T cells in the protective immunity.METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from VL, HVL and naive groups were exposed in vitro to total soluble Leishmania antigen (TSLA) from L. donovani. The proliferation index was determined by ELISA based lymphoproliferative assay. Cytokines and granzyme B levels were measured by CBA. Activated T-cell populations were estimated using flow cytometry.RESULTS: We observed significantly higher lymphoproliferation, cytokines and granzyme B levels in HVL group compared to naive or VL group. More strikingly, we found a strong association (rs = 0.895, P < 0.0001) between proliferation index (PI) and granzyme B level, with a significant proportion of activated CD8(+) T cells in HVL group.CONCLUSIONS: Leishmania immune group (HVL) exhibited durable and strong cellular immune response to TSLA in terms of lymphoproliferation as well as production of Th1 cytokines and granzyme B. Additionally, the elevated level of activated CD8(+) T cells and stimulation of cytotoxic activity through granzyme B production, indicated a possible role of CD8(+) T cells in resistance to L. donovani infection in the HVL group. Source

Katara G.K.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Ansari N.A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Singh A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Ramesh V.,Safdarjung Hospital | Salotra P.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a dermal sequel of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, constitutes an important reservoir for the parasite. Parallel functioning of counter acting immune responses (Th1/Th2) reflects a complex immunological scenario, suggesting the involvement of additional regulatory molecules in the disease pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study, human cytokine/chemokine/receptor specific cDNA array technique was employed to identify modulations in gene expression of host immuno-determinants during PKDL, followed by evaluation of Th17 type responses by analyzing mRNA and protein expression of Th17 markers (IL-23, IL-17, RORγt) and performing functional assays using Leishmania antigen (TSLA) or recombinant (rec)IL-17. Array analysis identified key immuno-regulatory molecules including cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17), chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1α), apoptotic molecules (FasL, TRAIL, IRF-1) and receptors (CD40, Fas). Up regulation in lesional expression of Th17 markers was observed during PKDL compared to control (IL-17 and IL-23, P = 0.0008; RORγt, P = 0.02). In follow-up samples, chemotherapy significantly down regulated expression of all markers. In addition, lesional expression of IL-17 was confirmed at protein level by Immuno-histochemistry. Further, systemic presence of Th17 responses (IL-17 and IL-23) was observed in plasma samples from PKDL patients. In functional assays, TSLA stimulated the secretion of IL-17 and IL-23 from PBMCs of PKDL patients, while recIL-17 enhanced the production of TNF-α as well as nitric oxide (NO) in PKDL compared to control (TNF-α, P = 0.0002; NO, P = 0.0013). Further, a positive correlation was evident between lesional mRNA expression of IL-17 and TNF-α during PKDL. Conclusion/Significance: The results highlight key immune modulators in PKDL and provide evidence for the involvement of Th17 type responses in the disease pathogenesis. © 2012 Katara et al. Source

Jain S.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Saxena S.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Kumar A.,Safdarjung Hospital Campus
Meta Gene | Year: 2014

Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time. © 2014. Source

Kumar P.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Bhakuni D.S.,Army Hospital Research and Referral | Rastogi S.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: There is a paucity of information on the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced reactive arthritis (ReA) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (uSpA) in India. In this study, arthritic patients suffering from ReA, uSpA, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were screened to investigate the presence of C. trachomatis infection in the synovial fluid (SF) or serum by molecular and non-molecular methods. Methodology: A total of 76 arthritic patients with ReA (n = 16) and uSpA (n = 22) composed the study group while those with RA (n = 38) served as controls. The detection of C. trachomatis DNA was done by semi-nested PCR (snPCR) and nested PCR (nPCR) targeting two different genes of C. trachomatis, namely major outer membrane protein and plasmid, respectively. The presence of serum or SF immunoglobulin IgG and IgA antibodies against C. trachomatis was studied by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results: The SF from 9 of 38 (23.6%) patients (5 with ReA and 4 with uSpA) was positive for at least one C. trachomatis DNA by snPCR or nPCR in comparison to RA (1/38 [2.6%]; p value < 0.05). There was no correlation between the snPCR or nPCR and the serological results of patients with ReA or uSpA. Conclusions: As molecular diagnostic techniques established intra-articular C. trachomatis infection among this group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies in India, these findings should be viewed with concern, and snPCR or nPCR should be considered for a more reliable diagnosis. © 2014 Kumar et al. Source

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