Zecchin M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS |
Catuneanu O.,University of Alberta
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2013
The high-resolution sequence stratigraphy tackles scales of observation that typically fall below the resolution of seismic exploration methods, commonly referred to as of 4th-order or lower rank. Outcrop- and core-based studies are aimed at recognizing features at these scales, and represent the basis for high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. Such studies adopt the most practical ways to subdivide the stratigraphic record, and take into account stratigraphic surfaces with physical attributes that may only be detectable at outcrop scale. The resolution offered by exposed strata typically allows the identification of a wider array of surfaces as compared to those recognizable at the seismic scale, which permits an accurate and more detailed description of cyclic successions in the rock record. These surfaces can be classified as 'sequence stratigraphic', if they serve as systems tract boundaries, or as facies contacts, if they develop within systems tracts. Both sequence stratigraphic surfaces and facies contacts are important in high-resolution studies; however, the workflow of sequence stratigraphic analysis requires the identification of sequence stratigraphic surfaces first, followed by the placement of facies contacts within the framework of systems tracts and bounding sequence stratigraphic surfaces.Several types of stratigraphic units may be defined, from architectural units bounded by the two nearest non-cryptic stratigraphic surfaces to systems tracts and sequences. The need for other types of stratigraphic units in high-resolution studies, such as parasequences and small-scale cycles, may be replaced by the usage of high-frequency sequences. The sequence boundaries that may be employed in high-resolution sequence stratigraphy are represented by the same types of surfaces that are used traditionally in larger scale studies, but at a correspondingly lower hierarchical level. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Carcione J.M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS
Geophysics | Year: 2010
The Fourier pseudospectral (PS) method is generalized to the case of derivatives of nonnatural order (fractional derivatives) and irrational powers of the differential operators. The generalization is straightforward because the calculation of the spatial derivatives with the fast Fourier transform is performed in the wavenumber domain, where the operator is an irrational power of the wavenumber. Modeling constant-Q propagation with this approach is highly efficient because it does not require memory variables or additional spatial derivatives. The classical acoustic wave equation is modified by including those with a space fractional Laplacian, which describes wave propagation with attenuation and velocity dispersion. In particular, the example considers three versions of the uniform-density wave equation, based on fractional powers of the Laplacian and fractional spatial derivatives. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source
Poulain P.-M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013
Velocities of surface drifters are analyzed to study tidal currents throughout the Adriatic Sea. Spectral and harmonic analyses indicate that the M2, S2, and K1 constituents dominate. Maps of tidal characteristics show that M2 and S2 are rectilinear currents (reversing tides) aligned with the main axis of the Adriatic basin with maximum amplitude (∼7 cm/s for M2 and ∼4 cm/s for S2) in the northern area off the Istrian Peninsula. Near the northern coast, semidiurnal tidal currents decrease in amplitude and rotate in the counterclockwise sense. Near the Po River delta, M2 (S2) motions rotate in the counterclockwise (clockwise) sense. S2 rotation is also counterclockwise near the northeastern coast. M2 phases increase from about 130° on the eastern Croatian coast to 190° on the western Italian side. S2 phases range from 150° to 200°. In the middle and southern Adriatic, the semidiurnal tides are small (∼1 cm/s). The diurnal tidal currents (K1) are strong across the basin at the levels of Monte Conero and the Gargano Peninsula with speed larger than 5 cm/s and mainly clockwise rotation, and also in coastal areas (e.g., on the Albanian shelf and close to the Otranto Channel). Phases increase from the east to the west coasts (by as much as 150°). These new results compare satisfactorily with previous observations and numerical simulations, although tidal amplitudes are under-estimated with respect to mooring measurements. They extend for the first time the description of the Adriatic tidal currents to the entire basin based on direct velocity observations. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.12. | Award Amount: 10.87M | Year: 2013
EUROFLEETS2 is the enhancement of EUROFLEETS1, with the aim of developing a new pan-European distributed infrastructure with common strategic vision and coordinated access to Research Vessels (RVs) and marine equipment. EUROFLEETS2 will furthermore undertake specific actions to consolidate research fleets organization, methodology and tools through operational initiatives (like virtual fleets) leading to more interoperable and cost effective European research fleets. EUROFLEETS2 main objectives are: * Promotion of operational coordination and integration of RVs. Modern European RVs are made accessible under EUROFLEETS2 (8 of Ocean/Global class and 14 of Regional class) plus 6 mobile pieces of equipment. Further integration is proposed within an innovative multi-platform experiment. The corresponding call aims to identify a flagship proposal, with a proven scientific excellence; * Completion of strategic perspectives for the European research fleets with a polar component; * Promotion of exchanges of mobile equipment on board European RVs to foster interoperability; * Enhancing the impact of research fleets on innovation by fostering the involvement of industry in specific activities, both as end user (e.g. development and testing of new equipment or deep-sea exploration for new resources) or as supplier; * Development of new training actions including a pilot floating university, and of new technological innovations to be widely used on board European RVs; * Making a new step towards a long term sustainable group of European Regional RVs with a view to applying for its insertion into the ESFRI roadmap.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015
The coastal area is the most productive and dynamic environment of the world ocean with significant resources and services for mankind. JERICO-NEXT (33 organizations from 15 countries) emphasizes that the complexity of the coastal ocean cannot be well understood if interconnection between physics, biogeochemistry and biology is not guaranteed. Such an integration requires new technological developments allowing continuous monitoring of a larger set of parameters. In the continuity of JERICO(FP7), the objective of JERICO-NEXT consists in strengthening and enlarging a solid and transparent European network in providing operational services for the timely, continuous and sustainable delivery of high quality environmental data and information products related to marine environment in European coastal seas Other objectives are: Support European coastal research communities, enable free and open access to data, enhance the readiness of new observing platform networks by increasing the performance of sensors, showcase of the adequacy of the so-developed observing technologies and strategies, propose a medium-term roadmap for coastal observatories through a permanent dialogue with stakeholders. Innovation JERICO-NEXT is based of a set of technological and methodological innovations. One main innovation potential is to provide a simple access to a large set of validated crucial information to understand the global change in coastal areas. Although JERICO-NEXT already includes industrial partners, it will be open to other research institutes, laboratories and private companies which could become associated partners to the project. Added values of JERICO NEXT JERICO-RI shall send data and information in an operational mode to European data systems, with dedicated service access. One of the strengths of JERICO-NEXT lies in the fact that technological and methodological developments shall be deployed in natural environment.