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Morrison R.J.,University of Wollongong | Zhang J.,East China Normal University | Urban E.R.,Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research | Hall J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | And 14 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

The oceans play a crucial role in the global environment and the sustainability of human populations, because of their involvement in climate regulation and provision of living and non-living resources to humans. Maintenance of healthy oceans in an era of increasing human pressure requires a high-level understanding of the processes occurring in the marine environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection and sustainable resource management must be based, in part, on knowledge derived from successful research. Current marine research activities are being limited by a need for high-quality researchers capable of addressing critical issues in broad multidisciplinary research activities. This is particularly true for developing countries which will require the building of capacity for marine scientific research. This paper reviews the current activities aimed at increasing marine research capacity in developing and emerging countries and analyses the challenges faced, including: appropriate alignment of the research goals and societal and policy-relevant needs; training in multidisciplinary research; increasing capacity for overall synthesis of scientific data; building the capacity of technical staff; keeping highly qualified personnel in marine scientific research roles; cross-cultural issues in training; minimising duplication in training activities; improving linkages among human capital, project resources and infrastructure. Potential solutions to these challenges are provided, along with some priorities for action aimed at improving the overall research effort. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Waryani B.,University of Karachi | Waryani B.,University of Sindh | Siddiqui G.,University of Karachi | Ayub Z.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

Blooms of jellyfishes were studied at 3 sites, namely Bhanbore, Mirpur Sakro, and Keti Bunder. The sampling was carried out from April 2005 to March 2006. Only 2 species of jellyfish, Catostylus perezi and Rhizostoma pulmo, were found in samples. C. perezi was present at all 3 sampling sites, whereas R. pulmo was found only at Keti Bunder. Specimens of C. perezi appeared in the subsurface waters for a period of 6–8 months during April to August 2006 and February to March 2006. The smallest specimens of C. perezi appeared in January, and a gradual increase in size was observed in the population until August. The smallest specimens of R. pulmo were found in February, and their largest specimens occurred in July. The numeric abundance of medusae in zooplankton was also studied. They were more abundant at Mirpur Sakro, with a peak in December and January, while at Keti Bunder their highest number was noted in May. Their number at Bhanbore was comparatively lower than at the other 2 sites. No significant difference in physical oceanographic factors such as salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and suspended load of the sampling site was found, except for water temperature. © TÜBITAK. Source

Ismail S.,PCSIR Head Office | Saifullah S.M.,University of Karachi | Khan S.H.,National Institute of Oceanography
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

In the present study monitoring of heavy metal pollution was done in the mangrove habitats of Indus Delta. Different levels of four heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) in abiotic component (sediments and water) and biotic components (mangrove plants parts like, (Pneumatophores, bark, leaves, flowers, and fruits) were determined. The highest average concentration of heavy metals (111 ppm Zn, 60.0 ppm Pb, 52.2 ppm Cu, 1.43 ppm Cd) were measured in sediments and the lowest in the water (0.13 ppm Zn, 0.0014 ppm Cu, 0.0007 ppm Pb, 0.00061ppm Cd). Among the four heavy metals, Zn was the most abundant metal in all components of the ecosystem, followed by Cu, Pb, and Cd (Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd), and hence A. marina can be proposed as a hyper-accumulator for Zn, which opens doors for further research. The pollution load index (PLI) had values higher than 1 and varied between 2.02-1.70 at Indus Delta, whereas at MianiHor the PLI was 0.65, which indicated that Indus Delta mangrove Ecosystem was under threat of pollution under the present scenario. Source

Limmer D.R.,University of Aberdeen | Kohler C.M.,University of Aberdeen | Hillier S.,James Hutton Institute | Moreton S.G.,Natural Environment Research Council | And 2 more authors.
Marine Geology | Year: 2012

We present a multi-proxy mineral record based on X-ray diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry analysis for two cores from the western Indus Shelf in order to reconstruct changing weathering intensities, sediment transport, and provenance variations since 13. ka. Core Indus-10 is located northwest of the Indus Canyon and exhibits fluctuations in smectite/(illite. +. chlorite) ratios that correlate with monsoon intensity. Higher smectite/(illite. +. chlorite) and lower illite crystallinity, normally associated with stronger weathering, peaked during the Early-Mid Holocene, the period of maximum summer monsoon. Hematite/goethite and magnetic susceptibility do not show clear co-variation, although they both increase at Indus-10 after 10. ka, as the monsoon weakened. At Indus-23, located on a clinoform just west of the canyon, hematite/goethite increased during a period of monsoon strengthening from 10 to 8. ka, consistent with increased seasonality and/or reworking of sediment deposited prior to or during the glacial maximum. After 2. ka terrigenous sediment accumulation rates in both cores increased together with redness and hematite/goethite, which we attribute to widespread cultivation of the floodplain triggering reworking, especially after 200. years ago. Over Holocene timescales sediment composition and mineralogy in two localities on the high-energy shelf were controlled by varying degrees of reworking, as well as climatically modulated chemical weathering. © 2012. Source

Mahmood T.,East China Normal University | Mahmood T.,National Institute of Oceanography | Fang J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Jiang Z.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2016

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured in the Sanggou Bay (SGB) in northern China, in order to investigate the seasonal distribution, sources and sink of DOC in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system of fish, shellfish and seaweed. The sampling was conducted during April (spring), August (summer), October (autumn) and January (winter) of 2011–2012. Salinity, Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and DOC showed large spatial and seasonal variation during sampling period. DOC increased with increasing Chl a in spring, summer and autumn and decreased with increasing salinity in summer compared to other seasons. Maximum surface concentration of DOC ranged from 108.0 to 875.2 µM and minimum from 134.4 to 184.7 µM was found during summer and spring, respectively. Terrestrial input, phytoplankton and seaweed were the main sources of DOC in SGB. Shellfish farming area was enriched in organic matter as well as served to reduce DOC levels in the bay. As it was indicated that average annual removal of 42 % DOC occurred in the shellfish, the lowest occurred at an average 32 % in combined shellfish and seaweed culture area. Additionally, controlled experiment results showed that seaweed produced approximately 64.81 ± 40.86 µM day−1 and shellfish generated approximately 13.36 ± 6.07 µM day−1 and assimilated 17.07 ± 13.12 µM day−1 DOC in SGB. Accumulation of DOC at the bottom could be a result of long-term aquaculture activities in the bay. Integration of sea cucumber into IMTA system could be useful to mitigate the stockpile of organic matter at the bottom. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

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