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Shiva M.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Gautam A.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Verma Y.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Shivgotra V.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Objectives: To determine seminal antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress markers, and their association with semen quality as oxidative stress is considered to be a major etiological factor in male infertility. Subjects and methods: Semen samples were obtained from 138 men and categorized on the basis of sperm count, motility, and morphology. Seminal oxidative and antioxidant markers are as follows: lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), thiols, and ascorbic acid were determined. Results: Sperm count significantly correlated positively with progressive sperm motility and normal morphology. Sperm count and normal morphology showed significant negative correlation with LPO and PC. Sperm count and progressive motility showed significant positive relationship with SOD. The SOD, CAT, and thiols positively whereas LPO and PC negatively associated with elevated sperm count. Conclusion: Insufficient antioxidant enzymes and increased oxidative stress may attribute to the risk of declining semen quality and hence protective role for antioxidant enzymes against the oxidative damage cannot be ruled out. © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.


Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Murarka S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Mishra V.V.,Institute of Kidney Diseases | Gautam A.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2014

Background & objectives: Male reproductive function in the general population has been receiving attention in recent years due to reports of various reproductive and developmental defects, which might be associated with various lifestyle and environmental factors. This study was carried out to determine the role of various lifestyle and environmental factors in male reproduction and their possible association with declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damage.Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 240 male partners of the couples consulting for infertility problem. Semen analysis was carried out using WHO criteria and subjects were categorized on the basis of self reported history of lifestyle as well as environmental exposure. The oxidative and antioxidant markers; lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as DNA damage by acridine orange test (AO) were determined.Results: The presence of abnormal semen parameters was significantly higher among the lifestyle and/ or environmental exposed subjects as compared to the non-exposed population. Further, the levels of antioxidants were reduced and sperm DNA damage was more among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects, though the changes were not significant.Interpretation & conclusions: These findings indicated that various lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol use as well as exposure to toxic agents might be attributed to the risk of declining semen quality and increase in oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage. © 2014, Indian Council of Medical Research. All rights reserved.


Gandhi D.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Panchal G.M.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Patel K.G.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

To characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by arsenic exposure, Albino rats were exposed to arsenic (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg/kg/day/po) from gestation day 8 to till parturition and the offspring were observed over the first 3 postnatal weeks, until they were weaned on post-natal day (PND) 21. Once the pups were delivered (PND0), the treatment was discontinued. All pups were assessed for physical development, reflex development, strength and motor coordination from standard neurobehavioural developmental test batteries beginning on PND1. Gestational administration of arsenic at tested dose levels, showed no significant changes in the day of appearance of eye opening, startle reflex, negative geotaxis and spontaneous alteration performance in comparison to the control group. The number of live fetuses, mean fetal body weight and percentages of resorptions or malformations per litter were not affected by arsenic exposure. No treatment-related malformations or developmental variations were noted at any exposure level, suggesting that arsenic exposure at this dose level did not adversely affect behavioural endpoints of developmental toxicity.


Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Mishra V.V.,Civil Hospital Campus
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2010

Some of the physical, chemical, dietary, occupational and environmental factors are having adverse effect on human reproduction. Increasing trend in reproductive disorders in recent years at least in part might be associated with these factors. The data available suggests less success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome of parents exposed to some of the reproductive toxic chemicals as compared to parents who were not exposed to such chemicals. However, data are very meager and require more studies as some debatable data also exists. But existing positive findings encourage in advising that sub-fertile subjects, who are planning to go for the IVF, should reduce toxic exposure well in advance by adopting positive life style and work environment. Further, clinician ought to be aware of occupational and environmental exposure history of the participating couple. © The Author(s) 2010.


Sinha S.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Shivgotra V.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Fuel adulteration increases the emission of total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and respirable particulate matter,and thus adds to air pollution. The study examined the effects of mixing of different percentage of kerosene with petrol on the motorized rickshaw exhausts in terms of volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene) and total suspended particulate matter (SPM). The personal sampler was used for sampling, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of compounds. Concentration of volatile organic compounds significantly decreased (p<0.001) along with the increase in fraction of kerosene in petrol. The level of benzene in exhausts while, using petrol (100 %) was significantly higher (p


Ahmad R.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Gautam A.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Verma Y.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Sedha S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 μg/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17β-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Joshi M.S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Verma Y.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Gautam A.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Parmar G.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2011

Objective: The rationale of the study was to evaluate the cytological alterations especially micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear anomalies in buccal mucosa cells of chewers to understand the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of chewing mixture (containing areca nut and tobacco as main ingredients). Methods: The buccal cytome assay involves the examination of epithelial smear to determine micronucleated cell and other nuclear anomalies after the Feulgen plus light green staining. The assay was applied to exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of 262 subjects [non-chewers - 161 and chewers - 101 (includes 20 subjects with OSMF)] and 1000 cells per individual were examined microscopically. Nuclear anomalies were compared among chewers, non-chewers and OSMF subjects and correlated with consumption of quids per day and duration of chewing in years. Results: MN cells were found significantly (p < 0.0001) higher among chewers and OSMF subjects as compared to non-chewers. Further analysis indicated that MN was significantly higher in OSMF subjects with respect to even chewers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in OSMF subjects as compared to chewers as well as non-chewers. Nuclear anomalies viz. binucleated, karyorrhexis and karyolysis were also considerably higher in OSMF subjects as compared to non-chewers. Conclusion: The MN and other nuclear anomalies reflected genetic damage and cytotoxicity, associated with tobacco and areca nut consumption. Further, these data reveal a risk for development of OSMF among chewers of mixture containing areca nut and/or tobacco, as all the OSMF subjects were chewers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gandhi D.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Panchal G.M.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2011

Arsenic has been widely studied for its effects as a human carcinogenic agent but few studies have dealt with neurobehavioral effects. Gestation exposure is a time of high sensitivity to chemical, associated with an important risk factor for development of newborns of neurobehavioral dysfunctions. In the present study, we investigated in utero exposure studies to characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by arsenic exposure. Pregnant female Albino rats were exposed to inorganic arsenic (0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 mg kg -1 day -1 by gavages) from gestation day 8 to till parturition and the offspring were observed over the first 3 postnatal weeks, until they were weaned on PND21. The offspring were examined for physical development, reflex development, strength and motor coordination through battery of test in order to evaluate their developmental neurotoxicity. The result of the study has not confirmed the high behaviours-teretrogenic potential of arsenic at given dose levels. Prenatal administration of arsenic failed to have physical development, neuromotor and reflex development, decreased exploration in the open field and delayed onset of negative geotaxis and startle reflex in arsenic-exposed animals in comparison to the control group. Present study demonstrated that, arsenic intoxication caused no significant alterations in the development of pups. Fetal effects such as mortality rate were observed but no maternal mortality was observed during the study with given doses. No statistically significant increases were observed for in utero deaths, resorptions and skeletal malformations during gestation day 8 to up to parturition with gavages. Prenatal administration of arsenic failed to induce neurobehavioral end points in rat suggest to pay increased attention to low level of arsenic concerning its exogenous use during pregnancy and further studies of dose-effect relationship are needed to assess the possible risk associated with arsenic exposure during gestation period.©2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2011

Scientific evidence indicates extreme exposure sensitivity of embryos, fetuses, and infants to the persistent environmental/occupational chemicals directly and or indirectly as compared to the same magnitude of exposure in adults. Paternal/maternal exposure to some of these chemicals might have a effect on the gamete structure and function, which might have significant implication for the adverse effect on pregnancy and their outcome. The available data point that some of the organochlorine chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT); metals such as lead, mercury; industrial pollutants such as dioxin, organic solvents, radiations; and some of the lifestyle-associated factors such as tobacco smoking (active and passive) and excessive maternal intake of alcohol had adverse effect on pregnancy outcome. The existing data support the hypothesis that, in general, working women have a higher risk of undesirable reproductive outcomes, even though the data are scanty. Studies are needed to find out the effects of those reproductive toxicants on priority basis which have been proved to be toxic in animal studies as well as data on human related to these chemicals are scanty. There is a need to educate the childbearing women to avoid exposure to the known or suspected risk factors and their employers to take measures to reduce the toxicant levels in workplace. © Society for Gynecologic Investigation 2011.


PubMed | National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Urology journal | Year: 2015

A wide variety of environmental chemicals/xenobiotics including phthalates have been shown to cause oxidative stress targeting the endocrine system and cause reproductive anomalies. The present review describes various issues by oxidative stress causing male reproductive dysfunctions. Here in this review, the importance and role of phthalate compounds in male reproductive dysfunction has been well documented.One class of environmental endocrine disruptors is phthalates. Phthalate compounds are mostly used as plasticizers, which increase the flexibility, durability, longevity, and etc. of the plastics. Large-scale use of plastic products in our daily life as well as thousands of workers engaged in the manufacture of plastic and plastic products and recycling plastic industry are potentially exposed to these chemicals. Further, general population as well as vulnerable groups i.e. children and pregnant women are also exposed to these chemicals. Phthalates are among wide variety of environmental toxicants capable of compromising male fertility by inducing a state of oxidative stress in the testes. They may also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may affect various physiological and reproductive functions.The available data points out that phthalate compounds may also induce oxidative stress in the male reproductive organs mainly testis and epididymis. They impair spermatogenic process by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in germ cells or target sertoli cells and thereby hamper spermatogenesis. They also impair the Leydig cell function by inducing ROS, thereby decreasing the levels of steroidogenic enzymes.Thus in utero and postnatal exposure to phthalate compounds might lead to decreased sperm count and various other reproductive anomalies in the young male.

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