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Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Mishra V.V.,Institute of Kidney Diseases
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2010

Some of the physical, chemical, dietary, occupational and environmental factors are having adverse effect on human reproduction. Increasing trend in reproductive disorders in recent years at least in part might be associated with these factors. The data available suggests less success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome of parents exposed to some of the reproductive toxic chemicals as compared to parents who were not exposed to such chemicals. However, data are very meager and require more studies as some debatable data also exists. But existing positive findings encourage in advising that sub-fertile subjects, who are planning to go for the IVF, should reduce toxic exposure well in advance by adopting positive life style and work environment. Further, clinician ought to be aware of occupational and environmental exposure history of the participating couple. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Kumar S.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2011

Scientific evidence indicates extreme exposure sensitivity of embryos, fetuses, and infants to the persistent environmental/occupational chemicals directly and or indirectly as compared to the same magnitude of exposure in adults. Paternal/maternal exposure to some of these chemicals might have a effect on the gamete structure and function, which might have significant implication for the adverse effect on pregnancy and their outcome. The available data point that some of the organochlorine chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT); metals such as lead, mercury; industrial pollutants such as dioxin, organic solvents, radiations; and some of the lifestyle-associated factors such as tobacco smoking (active and passive) and excessive maternal intake of alcohol had adverse effect on pregnancy outcome. The existing data support the hypothesis that, in general, working women have a higher risk of undesirable reproductive outcomes, even though the data are scanty. Studies are needed to find out the effects of those reproductive toxicants on priority basis which have been proved to be toxic in animal studies as well as data on human related to these chemicals are scanty. There is a need to educate the childbearing women to avoid exposure to the known or suspected risk factors and their employers to take measures to reduce the toxicant levels in workplace. © Society for Gynecologic Investigation 2011. Source

Sinha S.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Shivgotra V.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Fuel adulteration increases the emission of total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and respirable particulate matter,and thus adds to air pollution. The study examined the effects of mixing of different percentage of kerosene with petrol on the motorized rickshaw exhausts in terms of volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene) and total suspended particulate matter (SPM). The personal sampler was used for sampling, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of compounds. Concentration of volatile organic compounds significantly decreased (p<0.001) along with the increase in fraction of kerosene in petrol. The level of benzene in exhausts while, using petrol (100 %) was significantly higher (p Source

Gandhi D.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Panchal G.M.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2011

Arsenic has been widely studied for its effects as a human carcinogenic agent but few studies have dealt with neurobehavioral effects. Gestation exposure is a time of high sensitivity to chemical, associated with an important risk factor for development of newborns of neurobehavioral dysfunctions. In the present study, we investigated in utero exposure studies to characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by arsenic exposure. Pregnant female Albino rats were exposed to inorganic arsenic (0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 mg kg -1 day -1 by gavages) from gestation day 8 to till parturition and the offspring were observed over the first 3 postnatal weeks, until they were weaned on PND21. The offspring were examined for physical development, reflex development, strength and motor coordination through battery of test in order to evaluate their developmental neurotoxicity. The result of the study has not confirmed the high behaviours-teretrogenic potential of arsenic at given dose levels. Prenatal administration of arsenic failed to have physical development, neuromotor and reflex development, decreased exploration in the open field and delayed onset of negative geotaxis and startle reflex in arsenic-exposed animals in comparison to the control group. Present study demonstrated that, arsenic intoxication caused no significant alterations in the development of pups. Fetal effects such as mortality rate were observed but no maternal mortality was observed during the study with given doses. No statistically significant increases were observed for in utero deaths, resorptions and skeletal malformations during gestation day 8 to up to parturition with gavages. Prenatal administration of arsenic failed to induce neurobehavioral end points in rat suggest to pay increased attention to low level of arsenic concerning its exogenous use during pregnancy and further studies of dose-effect relationship are needed to assess the possible risk associated with arsenic exposure during gestation period.©2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Gandhi D.N.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Panchal G.M.,National Institute of Occupational Health ICMR | Dhull D.K.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2014

Introduction. Methylmercury (MeHg) is recognized as one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants. This may be a concern to long-term consumption of contaminated fish and seafood for health risk to pregnant women and their children. Aim. An animal study was conducted to assess the effect of MeHg exposure on rodent offspring following in utero exposure. Methods. Pregnant Wister rats were treated by gavage with MeHg at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD) 5 till parturition, and then were allowed to deliver. Results. Dams treated with 2.0 mg/kg/day MeHg group showed signs of toxicity such as gait alterations and hyperactivity resulting in the failure to deliver sustainable viable pups. MeHg had significant effects on body weight gain of dams during GD 5 till parturition. MeHg had no significant effects on the ages of physical developments such as pinna detachment, incisor eruptions or eye opening as well as alter cliff avoidance, surface righting, swimming ontogeny, startle reflex, pivoting, negative geotaxis, or forelimb andhindlimb grip strength in either sex. Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg/day MeHg treatment group prolonged gestation period, retard mid-air righting in male pups, shortened forelimb grip strength measured on rotating rod in either sex and enhanced open field behaviour in male pups. Data obtained from Functional Observation Battery (FOB) also revealed impairment of neuromotor performance in male pups. The male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the female pups. Conclusion. Overall, the dose level of MeHg in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter neuromotor performance of the male pups. Source

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