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Bin P.,National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2010

To explore the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and telomere length (TL), so as to investigate the effective biomarkers to evaluate the genetic damage in peripheral blood of workers exposed to PAHs. The exposure group consisted of 145 coke-oven workers (including 30 top-oven workers, 76 side-oven workers and 39 bottom-oven workers), and the non-exposure control group comprised 68 medical staffs. At 6 hours after the weekend duty shift, the samples of urine and 1 ml venous blood were collected from each subject. Airborne benzene-soluble matter (BSM) and particulate-phase B(a)P in the working environment of coke-oven and controls were sampled and analyzed. The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) was determined. A real-time PCR method was used to determine the relative telomere length (RTL) of genomic DNA in peripheral blood. The relationship between the RTL and external exposure of PAHs, the potential factors which might have influence on TL were analyzed. The medians of air BSM and particulate-phase B(a)P were higher in coke-oven (BSM: 328.6 μg/m(3); B(a)P: 926.9 ng/m(3)) than those in control working environment (BSM:97.8 μg/m(3); B(a)P: 49.1 ng/m(3)). The level of 1-OHPyr among coke-oven workers was significantly higher than that of non-exposed group (12.2 μmol/mol Cr vs 0.7 μmol/mol Cr; t = 26.971, P < 0.01). RTL in coke-oven workers were significantly shorter than those of controls (1.10 ± 0.75 vs 1.43 ± 1.06; t = 2.263, P = 0.026), and after adjusting for cigarettes per day and urinary 1-OHPyr, the significant difference was still observed (F(adju) = 5.496, P(adju) = 0.020). Stratification analysis found that RTL among the male and non-drinking groups in coke-oven workers were shorter than those the same sex and alcohol using status in controls (1.08 ± 0.73 vs 1.51 ± 1.10, F = 9.212, P = 0.003; 0.96 ± 0.38 vs 1.26 ± 0.46, F = 6.484, P = 0.012). Significant correlation between RTL and age was found (r = -0.284, P = 0.019) in non-exposure group. PAH-exposure has effect on TL of genomic DNA in peripheral blood, which is mainly observed in the male and non-drinking groups between PAH-exposed workers and controls. It indicates that TL of genomic DNA in peripheral blood might be an effective biomarker as PAH-induced genetic damage. Source


Ma J.X.,National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To elucidate the mechanism of carcinogenesis induced by coke oven emissions by investigating the cell genetic damage index and the methylation of O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). The human bronchial epithelial cell 16HBE was treated by 1 μmol/L B(a)P for 48 h, and then was exposed continuously to either 1‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or organic extracts of coke oven emission (OE-COE) for five days at the concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μg/ml. The methylation-specific PCR (MSP-PCR), RT-PCR and immunoblotting were applied to detect the methylation status, changes of mRNA and protein of MGMT, respectively. Single cell gel electrophoresis was used to detect DNA damage induced by OE-COE. Compared with the control group (DMSO), there was a significant hypermethylation in all study groups, along with the suppression of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, and the gradation ratio of them was 1.0, 0.96, 0.96, 0.85, 0.32 and 1.0, 1.0, 1.1, 0.41, 0.52, separately. There was a significant DNA damage with a dose-effect relationship in all study groups (F = 41.22, P < 0.05), and the comet Olive tail moment was (2.98 ± 1.43), (4.76 ± 1.79), (10.09 ± 1.75), (11.38 ± 1.77), (11.67 ± 1.88). The further study found that the index of DNA damage was negatively correlated to the expression of MGMT mRNA and its protein. The DNA damage induced by COE might be associated with the suppression of MGMT caused by its hypermethylation. Source


Duan H.W.,National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To investigate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) by 16HBE-CYP1A1 cells which are human bronchial epithelial cell with CYP1A1 transformed. METHODS: Expression of CYP1A1 and mEH of cell models were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cells were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 micromol/L B(a)P for 24 h. Adverse effects of B(a)P were tested by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assays. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the nuclear division index (NDI), frequency of necrotic and apoptotic cells. Genetic damages were assessed by frequencies of CBMN, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs). RESULTS: High levels of CYP1A1 and mEH were found in 16HBE-CYP1A1 cells (relative mRNA content was 7.8 x 10(-4) and 0.030 respectively). In 16HBE-CYP1A1 cells, NDI were decreased in 1, 5, 10 and 20 micromol/L B(a)P treated groups, 1.92 +/- 0.04, 1.71 +/- 0.01, 1.61 +/- 0.04, and 1.41 +/- 0.01, respectively; and lower than control group (2.08 +/- 0.03). Compared with control group ((82.67 +/- 6.66)%), the binucleated cells ratios were decreased, (76.33 +/- 3.51)%, (66.33 +/- 0.58)%, (51.67 +/- 1.53)% and (39.0 +/- 1.0)% respectively.Necrotic cells ratios were (1.93 +/- 0.42)%, (2.20 +/- 0.53)%, (8.07 +/- 0.90)% and (15.27 +/- 2.80)%, respectively, higher than control group ((0.47 +/- 0.11)%). The differences were significant (F values were 899.94, 303.33, 240.87, P < 0.01). Apoptotic cells were increased at lower groups and decreased to normal at higher groups treated by B(a)P. They were (1.20 +/- 0.53)%, (2.00 +/- 0.20)%, (1.47 +/- 0.12)%, (1.20 +/- 0.00)% and (1.20 +/- 0.00)%, respectively. Analysis on biomarkers of genetic damage, the significant dose-effect relationship were observed in NPBs and NBUDs (F values were 50.23, 121.09, P < 0.01, respectively). Frequencies of NPBs were (4.67 +/- 2.89) per thousand, (7.33 +/- 1.53) per thousand, (10.67 +/- 2.08) per thousand and (11.00 +/- 1.00) per thousand respectively. Frequencies of NBUDs were (2.33 +/- 0.58) per thousand, (4.00 +/- 1.00) per thousand, (5.00 +/- 1.00) per thousand, and (7.67 +/- 1.16) per thousand respectively. However, the dose-relationship of CBMN last only to 10 micromol/L B(a)P treated groups in 16HBE-CYP1A1 cells, and frequencies of CBMN were (8.33 +/- 3.21) per thousand, (14.67 +/- 1.15) per thousand, respectively. Frequency of CBMN was (16.67 +/- 2.88) per thousand in 20 micromol/L B(a)P treated group, lower than 10 micromol/L B(a)P treated group ((17.67 +/- 2.08) per thousand). In 16HBEV control cells, the cytotoxicity was found only in higher B(a)P treated groups and frequencies of CBMN, NPBs and NBUDs were increased also. While no significant differences were observed between 5, 10, 20 micromol/L B(a)P treated groups (they were (6.37 +/- 2.08) per thousand, (9.33 +/- 1.52) per thousand, (9.33 +/- 3.21) per thousand; (4.33 +/- 1.53) per thousand, (6.00 +/- 2.65) per thousand, (5.33 +/- 1.53) per thousand and (2.33 +/- 0.58) per thousand, (3.33 +/- 1.16) per thousand, (3.67 +/- 1.16) per thousand, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic damages were more severe after treated with activated B(a)P, which may be induced by decreased NDI, increased necrotic cells and inhibition of apoptosis. Source


Ding C.G.,National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To establish an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) method for determination of 30 trace elements including As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ni, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl, V, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ti, W, Te, Se, Zr, In, Sb, Hg, Ce, La, and Sm in human blood. The blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS after diluted 1/10 with 0.01% Triton-X-100 and 0.5% nitric acid solution. Y, Rh and Lu were selected as internal standard in order to correct the matrix interference of Cr, As, Se, and Hg by a hex pole-based collision-reaction cell. Other elements were determined with standard method. The limits of detection, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated. The accuracy was validated by the determination of the whole blood reference material. All the 30 trace elements have good linearity in their determination range, with the correlation coefficient > 0.9999. The limits of detection of the 30 trace elements were in the range of 1.19 - 2.15 μg/L and the intra-precision and inter-precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) were less than 14.3% (except Hg RSD < 21.2%, and Ni RSD < 15.4%). The spiked recovery for all elements fell within 59.3% - 119.2%. Among the 13 whole blood reference materials, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Te, and Pb (1.45, 1.19, 18.40, 0.18, 1.57, 591.00, 2.97, 61.00, 0.35, 1.86, and 9.70 μg/L respectively) fell within the acceptable range and the detection results of Hg (0.59 μg/L) and Mo (1.59 μg/L) were slightly beyond the range. This method was simple, fast and effective. It can be used to monitor the multi-elementary concentration in human blood. Source


Ding C.G.,National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To evaluate the chromium (Cr) levels in blood and urine among general population in China between 2009 and 2010, and thereby to analyze its prevalent features. From year 2009 to 2010, a total of 11 983 subjects of general population aged between 6 and 60 year-old were recruited from 24 districts in 8 provinces in eastern, central and western China mainland, by cluster random sampling method. The information about their living environment and health status were collected by questionnaire, and 11 983 blood samples and 11 853 urine samples were also collected. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to test the Cr level both in blood and urine; and the Cr distribution in blood and urine among groups of population in different ages, genders and districts, were then analyzed. Among general population in China, the geometric mean (GM) of Cr concentration in blood was 1.19 μg/L, with median at 1.74 μg /L and 95% percentile at 5.59 μg/L. The Cr concentration in blood among males and females were separately 1.18 μg/L and 1.20 μg/L(P > 0.05); while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 1.00, 1.22, 1.01, 1.40, 1.27 and 1.30 μg/L (P < 0.01), respectively; and the figures in populations from eastern, central and western China were 1.00, 1.70 and 1.98 μg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. Among general population, the GM of Cr concentration in urine was 0.53 μg/L, with median was lower than 0.42 μg/L and 95% percentile at 3.53 μg/L. The Cr concentration in urine among males and females were separately 0.52 μg/L and 0.53 μg/L (P > 0.05);while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 0.56, 0.60, 0.52, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.46 μg/L (P < 0.01), respectively;and the figures in populations from eastern, central and western China were 0.58, < 0.42 and 0.60 μg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. The study reported the Cr levels in blood and urine among general population in China, and thereby provided basic data evidence for the following Cr biological monitoring studies in near future. Source

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