National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control

Beijing, China

National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control

Beijing, China
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Jia X.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Liu B.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Shi X.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Ye M.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | And 2 more authors.
Cell Biology International | Year: 2011

Silica is a potent occupational fibrogenic agent capable of inducing lung fibrosis and many other lung diseases. Our current study focused on the signalling pathways regulating cell cycle changes in HELF (human embryo lung fibroblast) after silica (α-quartz) exposure. Our results showed silica exposure could lead to cell cycle changes. The cell cycle alternations were accompanied with overexpression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) in a timedependent manner. Silica exposure also decreased E2F-4 expression in HELF. These changes were blocked by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) or the JNK (stressactivated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), respectively. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with curcumin, an activation of AP-1 (activator protein-1) inhibitor, inhibited silica-induced cell cycle alteration, the decreased expression of E2F-4 and overexpression of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, both antisense cyclin D1 and antisense CDK4 can block silicainduced cell cycle changes. These results suggest that silica exposure can induce cell cycle changes, which may be mediated through ERK, JNK/AP-1/cyclin D1-CDK4-dependent pathway. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2011 Portland Press Limited.


Liu H.F.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2011

To study the roles of Ku80/p53 pathway in silica-induced cell cycle changes in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF). Ku80 siRNA expression vectors were transfected into HELF by lipofectamine. Flow cytometry was used to detect the distributions of cell cycle and western blot assay was used to determine the expression level of Ku80, p53 and p21 proteins or the phosphorylation levels of p53-ser15 after cells were exposed to silica. The expression levels of Ku80 protein increased in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners after cells were exposed to silica. The proportion of G1 phases in H-NC cells (controls) decreased from 89.28% +/- 2.19% to 68.93% +/- 3.79% after exposure to silica, and the proportion of G1 phases in HELF cells (H-Ku80) decreased from 85.16% +/- 3.73% to 59.92% +/- 3.31% after exposure to silica (P<0.05). The expression levels of Ku80, p53 proteins or p21 proteins or phosphorylation level of p53-ser15 were obviously suppressed in H-Ku80, as compared with H-NC. Ku80/p53 pathway plays a role in the cell cycle charges induced by silica in human embryo lung fibroblasts.


Jia X.W.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2011

To investigate the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) on silica-induced cell cycle changes. After cells were treated with 200 microg/ml silica, Western blot and Immunofluorescence assays were utilized to detect the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2F-4, Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle progression, the dominant negative mutants techniques were used to investigate silica-induced signal pathway and the effects of which in silica-induced cell cycle changes. After cells were exposed to 200 microg/ml silica 24 h, the results of present study showed the proportion of cells in G1 phases was decreased. Silica-induced cell cycle alternation was markedly impaired by stable expression of a dominant negative mutants of ERK or JNK, but not p38. It was found that ERK and JNK were involved in silica-induced cyclin D1 and CDK4 overexpression and the decreased expression of E2F-4. ERK and JNK, but not p38, mediated silica-induced cell cycle changes in human embryo lung fibroblasts.


Liu H.F.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2011

To study the roles of DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)in silica-induced cell cycle changes and expressions of CyclinE and CDK2 in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF). The expressions of Ku80 and DNA-PKcs proteins were inhibited by siRNA plasmids, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect the distributions of cell cycle and western blot assay was used to determine the expression levels of CyclinE and CDK2 after cells were exposed to 200 microg/ml silica for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h. The proportion of G1 phases in negative control cells decreased from 83.53% +/- 2.24% to 69.11% +/- 3.12% after exposure to silica; the proportion of G1 phases in H-Ku80 and H-PKcs cells exposed to silica decreased from 85.16% +/- 3.73% to 59.92% +/- 3.31% and from 75.06% +/- 2.23% to 58.32% +/- 1.35%, respectively (P < 0.05). The exposure to silica resulted in the increasing protein expression levels of CyclinE and CDK2 in negative control cells, and the expression levels of CyclinE were obviously suppressed in H-Ku80 and H-PKcs as compared with control cells. However, the expression level of CDK2 protein did not change significantly. DNA-PK might play a role in silica-induced alternations of cell cycle and regulate silica-induced overexpression of CyclinE in human embryo lung fibroblasts.


Jia X.W.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2011

To investigate the roles of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in the cell cycle changes of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs) exposed to silica. HELFs were divided into 4 groups: control group, curcumin (20 μmol/L for 1 h) group, silica (200 μg/ml for 24 h) group and curcumin plus silica group, i.e. after exposure to 20 μmol/L curcumin for 1h, the HELFs were treated with 200 μg/ml silica for 24 h. Western blot and Immunofluorescence assays were utilized to detect the expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2F1/4. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle progression, the RNA transfection technique was used to investigate the silica-induced signal pathway and the roles of which in silica-induced cell cycle changes. The expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 significantly increased and the expression level of E2F-4 decreased obviously, but the expression level of E2F-1 did not significantly change in silica group. The proportion of G1 phase cells obviously decreased and the proportion of S phase cells significantly increased in silica group, as compared with control group (P < 0.05). When suppressing the expression of cyclin D1 or CDK4, the proportions of cells in G1 phase in anti-D1 plus silica group and anti-K4 plus silica group did not obviously change, as compared with control group. When suppressing AP-1 activity, the cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression levels decreased and the E2F-4 expression level increased in curcumin plus silica group, as compared with silica group. The results of present suggested that 200 μg/ml silica could induce the high expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and the low expression of E2F-4, resulting in the cell cycle changes by AP-1/cyclin D1 pathway in HELFs.


Zhang F.M.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2010

To study the role of p53 in silica-induced cell cycle alternation and DNA double strand breaks repair in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF). Neutral comet assay was applied to detect silica-induced DNA double strand breaks. According to the neutral comet experimental result, the DNA repair competence was calculated. The expression levels and phosphorylation of protein in HELF were determined by Western blot. Cell cycle changes were identified by flow cytometry in HELF. After treatment with 200 microg/ml silica for different times (0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h), the expression levels and phosphorylation of p53 increased in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximum at 12 h and then decreasing at 24 h. After treatment with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 microg/ml silica for 12 h, the expression levels and phosphorylation of p53 increased in concentration-dependent manner. After p53 expression was inhibited, silica-induced DNA damage repair competence was markedly increased (DRC = 87.68%), compared with the negative control cell induced by silica (DRC = 57.19%). Silica increased the percentage of S phase (31.8 +/- 1.1)% compared with the controls (24.3 +/- 3.8)% (P < 0.05). When p53 expression was inhibited, the number of S phase cells was significantly increased, (41.4 +/- 0.6)% compared with the controls (25.4 +/- 1.9)% (P < 0.05). The silica dramatically increases the expression levels and phosphorylation of p53. The increased expression of p53 mediates silica-induced cell cycle change and inhibits silica-induced DNA double strand breaks repair.


Liu H.F.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2010

To study the role of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) in silica-induced DNA double strand break repair in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF). Control HELF cells and DN-Deltap85 (HELF transfected with Dominant negative mutant of PI3K) were treated with 200 microg/ml silica for different times. The expression levels of phosphor-H2AX (H2AX), Ku70, Ku80 and DNA-PKcs were determined by Western blot. Furthermore, DNA double strand breaks were measured by neutral comet assay after cells were treated with 200 microg/ml silica for 0, 12 and 24 h. After treatment with 200 microg/ml silica for different times, the levels of H2AX were increased in a time-dependent manner and the expression levels of H2AX were obviously suppressed in DN-Deltap85 compared with control cells. The levels of Ku70 and Ku80 were also significantly suppressed in DN-Deltap85 (0.37 +/- 0.14, 0.55 +/- 0.17) compared with control cells (0.58 +/- 0.09, 0.95 +/- 0.21) after treatment with 200 microg/ml silica for 12 h (P < 0.05). Both the percentage of tail DNA in HELF and DN-Deltap85 increased significantly at 12 h (9.78 +/- 1.15, 11.79 +/- 4.90) compared with groups without treatment with silica (2.40 +/- 0.69, 3.31 +/- 1.35) and then decreased at 24 h (4.19 +/- 0.47, 7.58 +/- 4.32), but only the decrease of HELF at 24 h was significant compared with HELF at 12 h (P < 0.05). DNA repair competence of HELF was 75.74% and that of DN-Deltap85 declined to 49.64%. Silica dust can induce DNA double strand breaks in human embryo lung fibroblasts. PI3K might play a role in silica-induced DNA double strand break repair by regulating the expression levels of Ku70 and Ku80.


Jia X.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Liu B.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Ye M.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Liu H.,National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control | Shi X.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Cell Biochemistry and Function | Year: 2010

Exposure to silica is associated with progressive pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our previous study had demonstrated silica exposure could cause cell cycle alternation and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. This study showed that silica exposure induced phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and Akt in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELFs). These changes were blocked by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Δp85) or Akt (DN-Akt), respectively. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with rapamycin, a specific p70S6K inhibitor, could inhibit silica-induced cell cycle alteration, AP-1 activation, and phosphorylation of p70S6K, but had no effect on Akt phosphorylation. This suggested that phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/AP-1 pathway was likely responsible for cell cycle changes. Furthermore, we observed the effect of the pathway on cell cycle regulatory proteins. Our results indicated that inactivation of PI-3K, Akt, or p70S6K could inhibit silica-induced overexpression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and decreased expression of E2F-4. Taken together, silica could induce cell cycle changes through PI-3K/ AP-1 pathway in HELFs. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2012

To investigate the roles of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in the cell cycle changes of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs) exposed to silica.HELFs were divided into 4 groups: control group, curcumin (20 mol/L for 1 h) group, silica (200 g/ml for 24 h) group and curcumin plus silica group, i.e. after exposure to 20 mol/L curcumin for 1h, the HELFs were treated with 200 g/ml silica for 24 h. Western blot and Immunofluorescence assays were utilized to detect the expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2F1/4. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle progression, the RNA transfection technique was used to investigate the silica-induced signal pathway and the roles of which in silica-induced cell cycle changes.The expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 significantly increased and the expression level of E2F-4 decreased obviously, but the expression level of E2F-1 did not significantly change in silica group. The proportion of G1 phase cells obviously decreased and the proportion of S phase cells significantly increased in silica group, as compared with control group (P < 0.05). When suppressing the expression of cyclin D1 or CDK4, the proportions of cells in G1 phase in anti-D1 plus silica group and anti-K4 plus silica group did not obviously change, as compared with control group. When suppressing AP-1 activity, the cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression levels decreased and the E2F-4 expression level increased in curcumin plus silica group, as compared with silica group.The results of present suggested that 200 g/ml silica could induce the high expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and the low expression of E2F-4, resulting in the cell cycle changes by AP-1/cyclin D1 pathway in HELFs.


PubMed | National Institute of Occupation Health and Poison Control
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2014

To study the role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-l (PARP-1) in formaldehyde-induced DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to investigate the mechanism of formaldehyde carcinogenicity.The protein levels were measured by Western blot. The interaction between different proteins was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The chemical inhibitor was used to confirm the relationship between PARP-1 and DNA damage repair.After being exposed to different concentrations of formaldehyde for 4 h, HBE cells showed no significant changes in cell viability. Cell viability was significantly reduced after 24-h exposure to 80 and 160 mol/L formaldehyde (P < 0.05). The 10 mol/L formaldehyde resulted in significant increases in the protein levels of PARP-1 and XRCC-1. However, 80 mol/L formaldehyde led to a significant decrease in the protein level of PARP-1 of 124 KD molecular weight but a significant increase in the protein level of PARP-1 of 89 KD molecular weight; there was no significant change in the protein level of XRCC-1. The co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that 10 mol/L formaldehyde induced increased binding between PARP-1 and XRCC-1, but 80 mol/L formaldehyde led to no significant change in binding between PARP-1 and XRCC-1. Here, we confirmed the role of 10 mol/L formaldehyde in strand breaks by comet assay which showed an increase in the tail DNA content of HBE cells after 4-h formaldehyde exposure. No significant difference was observed in tail DNA content between treated HBE cells and control cells at 2 h after formaldehyde was removed. Moreover, compared with control, inhibition of PARP-1 induced a significant increase in tail DNA content, and a significant difference was observed in tail DNA content between inhibited HBE cells and control cells at 2 h after formaldehyde was removed. Inhibition of PARP-1 significantly reduced DNA repair capacity.PARP-1 mediated the repair of DNA damage induced by low-concentration formaldehyde through recruiting XRCC-1 protein, and may be involved in the regulation of cell apoptosis induced by high-concentration formaldehyde.

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