National Institute of Nutrition NIN

Hyderabad, India

National Institute of Nutrition NIN

Hyderabad, India
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Potukuchi A.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Addepally U.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University | Sindhu K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University | Manchala R.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Background: Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are chronic nutrient-related disorders that occur together and pose a grave burden to society. They are among the most common causes of ageing and death. Obesity and T2D per se accelerate ageing albeit the underlying mechanisms are unclear yet. Also, it is not clear whether or not superimposing T2D on obesity accelerates ageing. Present study validated the hypothesis, ‘super-imposing T2D on obesity accelerates ageing’ in WNIN/Gr-Ob, the impaired glucose tolerant, obese rat as the model and evaluated probable underlying mechanisms. Objectives: To estimate the survival analysis of WNIN/Gr-Ob rats induced with T2D. To determine the extent of DNA damage and oxidative stress in the brain, the master controller of the body, in WNIN/Gr-Ob rats with/without high sucrose induced T2D/aggravation of insulin resistance (IR) after 3 and 6 months of feeding. Methods: T2D was induced/IR was aggravated by feeding high sucrose diet (HSD) to 9–10 weeks old, male WNIN/Gr-Ob rats. Survival percentage was determined statistically by Kaplan–Meier estimator. Neuronal DNA damage was quantified by the Comet assay while the oxidative stress and antioxidant status were evaluated from the levels of malonaldialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Results and Discussion: HSD feeding decreased longevity of WNIN/Gr-Ob rats and was associated with significantly higher total neuronal DNA damage after three months of feeding but not later. In line with this was the increased neuronal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and decreased antioxidant status (reduced glutathione and SOD activity) in HSD than Starch-based diet (SBD) fed rats. The results suggest that HSD feeding decreased the longevity of WNIN/Gr-Ob obese rats probably by increasing oxidative stress and aggravating IR, a condition that precedes T2D. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Khandare A.L.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Ankulu M.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Aparna N.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2013

Neurolathyrism is associated with a complex pattern of alterations in the glutamatergic system of the cortical motor region of brain. It is a neurological disorder consorted with excessive consumption of Lathyrus sativus (Grass pea), comprising large amounts of the neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP). ODAP being a potent agonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors enhances their activity and also blocks the astrocytic glutamate/cystine transporters, abutting the neurons. This leads to the sustained increase in the concentration of Glutamate in the synapse which triggers excitotoxicity. L. sativus also contains high levels of arginine and homoarginine which are natural substrates of nitric oxide production, when NO levels increases, it forms peroxynitrite radicals which cause irreparable damage to mitochondria and cellular macromolecules leading to motor neuron degeneration. This review brings together all the molecular events reported so far, emphasizing on the possible role of glutamate and nitric oxide mediated cell death. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Vijayapushpam T.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Subba Rao G.M.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Raghunatha Rao D.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the impact of a classroom-based nutrition and health education intervention among student community volunteers in improving their knowledge on individual topics.Design Prospective follow-up study. Topic-wise knowledge change among student volunteers on individual topics (twenty-one questions related to nutrition and health, eight questions related to infectious diseases and two questions related to obesity and hypertension) pertaining to nutrition and health was evaluated at baseline and after intervention, using the McNemar test.Setting Six different colleges affiliated to Osmania University, Andhra Pradesh, India.Subjects Six hundred and eighty-seven student volunteers under the National Service Scheme, of both genders, average age 19 years.Results: A significant mean improvement of 11.36 (SD 8.49, P < 0.001) was observed in the overall nutrition and health knowledge scores of the student volunteers after the education intervention. The McNemar test showed that knowledge on individual topics related to energy, proteins, fats, adolescent phase, obesity, some lifestyle diseases and infectious diseases improved significantly (P < 0.01). No significant (P > 0.05) improvement was observed in knowledge on the nutritional content of milk and sprouted grams, hypertension, HIV/AIDS, ELISA and malaria.Conclusions: Topics on which our educational intervention could not bring about significant knowledge improvement have been identified and suitable modifications can be carried out to strengthen them.

Anwar M.J.,Jamia Hamdard University | Radhakrishna K.V.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Sharma A.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Vohora D.,Jamia Hamdard University
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced adverse consequences on bone are now well recognized. Despite this, there is limited data on the effect of anti-osteoporotic therapies on AEDs-induced bone loss. We hypothesize that estrogen deprivation following phenytoin (PHT) and sodium valproate (SVP) therapy could lead to adverse bony effects. Both PHT and SVP inhibit human aromatase enzyme and stimulate microsomal catabolism of oestrogens. Estrogen deficiency states are known to reduce the deposition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β3), a bone matrix protein, having anti-osteoclastic property. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with calcium and vitamin D3 (CVD) supplementation, on PHT and SVP-induced alterations in bone in mice and to unravel the role of estradiol and TGF-β3 in mediation of bony effects by either AEDs or raloxifene. Further, the effect of raloxifene on seizures and on the antiepileptic efficacy of PHT and SVP was investigated. Swiss strains of female mice were treated with PHT (35 mg/kg, p.o.) and SVP (300 mg/kg, p.o.) for 120 days to induce bone loss as evidenced by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone turnover markers (BTMs) in lumbar bones (alkaline phosphatase, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase, hydroxyproline) and urine (calcium). The bone loss was accompanied by reduced serum estradiol levels and bone TGF-β3 content. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with raloxifene ameliorated bony alterations and was more effective than CVD. It also significantly restored estradiol and TGF-β3 levels. Deprived estrogen levels (that in turn reduced lumbar TGF-β3 content) following PHT and SVP, thus, might represent one of the various mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone loss. Raloxifene preserved the bony changes without interfering with antiepileptic efficacy of these drugs, and hence raloxifene could be a potential therapeutic option in the management of PHT and SVP-induced bone disease if clinically approved. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Laillou A.,Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition GAIN | van Pham T.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Tran N.T.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Le H.T.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The 2000 Vietnamese National Nutrition Survey showed that the population's dietary intake had improved since 1987. However, inequalities were found in food consumption between socioeconomic groups. As no national data exist on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, a survey was conducted in 2010 to assess the micronutrient status of randomly selected 1526 women of reproductive age and 586 children aged 6-75 mo. Principal Findings: In women, according to international thresholds, prevalence of zinc deficiency (ZnD, 67.2±2.6%) and vitamin B12 deficiency (11.7±1.7%) represented public health problems, whereas prevalence of anemia (11.6±1.0%) and iron deficiency (ID, 13.7±1.1%) were considered low, and folate (<3%) and vitamin A (VAD, <2%) deficiencies were considered negligible. However, many women had marginal folate (25.1%) and vitamin A status (13.6%). Moreover, overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2 for Asian population) or underweight occurred in 20% of women respectively highlighting the double burden of malnutrition. In children, a similar pattern was observed for ZnD (51.9±3.5%), anemia (9.1±1.4%) and ID (12.9±1.5%) whereas prevalence of marginal vitamin A status was also high (47.3±2.2%). There was a significant effect of age on anemia and ID prevalence, with the youngest age group (6-17 mo) having the highest risk for anemia, ID, ZnD and marginal vitamin A status as compared to other groups. Moreover, the poorest groups of population had a higher risk for zinc, anemia and ID. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia and ID in Vietnam has been markedly reduced over the last decade, but a large part of the population is still at risk for other deficiencies such as zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin B12 especially the youngest children aged 6-17 mo. Consequently specific interventions to improve food diversity and quality should be implemented, among them food fortification of staple foods and condiments and improvement of complementary feeding. © 2012 Laillou et al.

Le Nguyen B.K.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Le Thi H.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Nguyen Do V.A.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Tran Thuy N.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5-11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14 % were stunted, 8·6 % underweight and 4·4 % thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6 %) and underweight (22·2 %) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29 % of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4 % of the overweight children and 1·6 % of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5-1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0-5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6-11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11-14 %) and vitamin A (5-10 %) levels, but almost half the children (48-53 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes. Copyright © The Authors 2013A.

Sinha J.K.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Ghosh S.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Swain U.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University | Giridharan N.V.,National Center for Laboratory Animal science | Raghunath M.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Wistar of the National Institute of Nutrition obese (WNIN/Ob) is a unique rat strain isolated and established at NIN, Hyderabad, India, in 1996, from its existing stock of Wistar rat colony (WNIN). This animal model exhibits all traits of metabolic syndrome and has a remarkably reduced lifespan (1.5. years as compared to 3. years in parental WNIN rats), albeit, the factors associated with premature aging are not well understood. Considering that oxidative stress and DNA damage are crucial players associated with senescence, we analyzed oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation; DNA damage in terms of both single-stranded and double-stranded breaks and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase in brain regions of these animals. Our study revealed that the magnitude of oxidative stress and DNA damage in the neocortex and hippocampus of 3-month-old WNIN/Ob obese rats is as high as that seen in 15-month-old parental WNIN control rats. Concurrently, the antioxidant enzyme activity was significantly decreased. From these results, it can be concluded that increased oxidative stress-induced damage of macromolecules, probably due to reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, is associated with premature aging in WNIN/Ob obese rats. © 2014 IBRO.

Vijayendra Chary A.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Hemalatha R.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Seshacharyulu M.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Vasudeva Murali M.,Gandhi Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%) plusmn SE) was lower (p ;lt 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 plusmn 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%) ± SE) was also lower (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%) ± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF β and IL-10 were lower (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kalashikam R.R.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Battula K.K.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Kirlampalli V.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Friedman J.M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Nappanveettil G.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

WNIN/Obese (WNIN/Ob) rat a new mutant model of metabolic syndrome was identified in 1996 from an inbred Wistar rat strain, WNIN. So far several papers are published on this model highlighting its physical, biochemical and metabolic traits. WNIN/Ob is leptin resistant with unaltered leptin or its receptor coding sequences - the two well-known candidate genes for obesity. Genotyping analysis of F2 progeny (raised from WNIN/Ob × Fisher - 344) in the present study localized the mutation to a recombinant region of 14.15cM on chromosome 5. This was further corroborated by QTL analysis for body weight, which narrowed this region to 4.43 cM with flanking markers D5Rat256 & D5Wox37. Interval mapping of body weight QTL shows that the LOD score peak maps upstream of leptin receptor and shows an additive effect suggesting this as a novel mutation and signifying the model as a valuable resource for studies on obesity and metabolic syndrome. © 2013 Kalashikam et al.

Malqvist M.,Uppsala University | Sohel N.,Uppsala University | Do T.T.,National Institute of Nutrition NIN | Eriksson L.,Uppsala University | Persson L.-A.,Uppsala University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods. A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results. A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4 th and 5th quintile, 1257 meters) from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status). When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56). Conclusion. Distance to the closest health facility was negatively associated with neonatal mortality risk. Health care utilisation in the prenatal period could partly explain this risk elevation since there was a distance decay in health system usage prior to and at delivery. The geographical dimension must be taken into consideration when planning interventions for improved neonatal survival, especially when targeting socio-economically disadvantaged groups. © 2010 Målqvist et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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