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Chalamaiah M.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Dinesh Kumar B.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Hemalatha R.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Jyothirmayi T.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Chalamaiah M.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Hemalatha R.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Jyothirmayi T.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Diwan P.V.,Anurag Group of Institutions | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects invivo. Methods: Common carp (C. yprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6wk, 18-20g) for a period of 45d. After 45d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. Results: The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Chalamaiah M.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Jyothirmayi T.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Diwan P.V.,Anurag Group of Institutions | Dinesh Kumar B.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′–azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2–12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source


Chalamaiah M.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Hemalatha R.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Jyothirmayi T.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Diwan P.V.,Anurag Group of Institutions | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Protein hydrolysates prepared from underutilized rohu (Labeo rohita) egg (roe), by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. The female BALB/c mice (4-6weeks, 18-20g) were administered with the rohu egg protein hydrolysates (REPHs) daily for a period of forty five days with concentration of 0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg body weight. Both innate and adaptive immune responses were studied. Pepsin hydrolysate significantly increased the splenic NK cell cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis and level of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA). The mucosal immunity (S-IgA) in the gut was significantly enhanced by pepsin and Alcalase hydrolysates. Whereas trypsin hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the spleen. This study confirms that REPHs are able to modulate immune function and further reveals that different rohu egg protein hydrolysates may exert differential influences on the immune system. These results suggest that REPHs contain immunostimulatory peptides that could be useful in pharmaceutical, health food or nutraceutical industry for various applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mamidi R.S.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Kulkarni B.,National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical Research | Singh A.,International Institution for Population science
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2011

Background. Information on adult height and associated secular trends in relation to socioeconomic characteristics based on a nationally representative sample is not available from India. Objective. To assess the averageadult height and secular trends in height in different states of India in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and dietary intakes according to data from the Third National Family Health Survey (NFHS 3). Methods. Averageheights and associated secular trends were analyzed for each state and in relation to socioeconomic variables. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the association of socioeconomic factors and consumption of animalsource foods with height. Results. Data from anthropometric measurements were available for 69,245 men and 118,796 women in the age group from 20 to 49 years. The average heights of adult men and women were 165 and 152 cm, respectively, with wide variation among states. Overall,there was a modest secular increase in height (0.50 cm per decade in men and 0.22 cm per decade in women), with a negative secular trend in some of the states. There were striking regional differences in the average heights and the secular trends in height. Similarly, higher socioeconomic status wasassociated with greater height and a greater secular increase in height. Milk consumption had a positive association with height in men (r = 0.69, p < .001) and women (r = 0.63, p < .001) in various/ different states. Conclusions. The secular increase in height has been modest in India in spite of impressive economic growth. Consumption patterns of milk in different states may be related to the regional differences in height. © 2011, The United Nations University. Source

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