National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Mandarapu R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology |
Ajumeera R.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Venkatesan V.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Prakhya B.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology
Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2014
In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) α) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon-(IFN-) γ, interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45-30 μM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 μg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2) and stimulated IL-2 (TH1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings. © 2014 Rajesh Mandarapu et al.
Devindra S.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Aruna T.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2017
The effects of soaking in 1 and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution, toasting, roasting followed by boiling and crude α-galactosidase treatment on the levels of the raffinose family of sugars in red gram (Cajanus cajan, L) seeds were investigated. The percent removal of raffinose (43.05 and 73.80%), stachyose (15.80 and 70.27%) and verbascose (18.07 and 51.71%) after soaking in 1 and 2% of sodium bicarbonate solution of red gram seeds for 16 h, respectively. Roasting of red gram seeds for 20 min led to a mean reduction of 64.17% for raffinose, 61.67% for stachyose and 57.53% for verbascose and toasting followed by boiling led to a mean reduction of 19.80% for raffinose, 33.20 for stachyose and 45.58% for verbascose, respectively. The treatment of red gram flour with partially purified α-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger for 3 h was effective in reducing the levels of the raffinose family of sugars. Practical Applications: The processing methods such as soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution (1 and 2%) toasting, roasting followed by boiling and crude α-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger treatment are employed to reduce the flatulence inducing raffinose family sugars in legume. Effect of soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution for 16 h led to highest reduction of raffinose family sugars than that of soaking in 1% sodium bicarbonate solution. Toasting of red gram seeds for 20 min has been found to moderate reduction of raffinose family sugars. Roasting for 5 min followed by 20 min boiling found to be low levels of reduction of raffinose family sugars. Whereas the partially purified α-galactosidase from A. niger was effective in reducing the levels of the raffinose family of sugars in all the cultivars studied. Enzymatic treatment for 3 h completely removed the flatus-inducing factors, as evidenced by TLC analysis. This information could further stimulate application of these inexpensive and easy methods for the removal of raffinose family of sugars in different varieties of legume seeds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ray S.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency |
Kulkarni B.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Sreenivas A.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2011
Background & objectives: Estimation of prevalence of prehypertension in a population and its association with risk factors of cardiovascular disease is important to design preventive programmes. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a healthy military population to assess the prevalence of prehypertension and its association with risk factors such as overweight, abdominal adiposity and dyslipidaemia. Methods: The study included 767 participants (130 officers and 637 from other ranks). The blood pressure, serum triglycerides and serum cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) were assessed along with anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist-hip ratio in apparently healthy military personnel. Information on smoking, alcohol intake, dietary habits and physical activity was collected using pretested questionnaire. Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120-139 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80-89 mm Hg. Results: The overall prevalence of prehypertension was high (about 80%). The prevalence of other risk factors such as overweight (BMI>23 kg/m2), serum total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl, serum LDL cholesterol > 130 mg/dl, serum HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl, serum triglyceride > 150 mg/dl in the total group was 30, 22, 22, 67, and 14 per cent, respectively. Most of the personnel undertook moderate or heavy exercise. A significantly higher proportion of individuals with prehypertension had clinical and behavioural risk factors such as overweight, dyslipidaemia and adverse dietary practices like saturated fat and added salt intake. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, prehypertension had significant positive association with BMI>23 kg/m2 (OR 1.75), age (OR 1.89), serum triglyceride >150 mg/dl (OR 2.25)and serum HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl (OR 1.51). Interpretation & conclusions: The high prevalence of prehypertension and its association with overweight and dyslipidaemia in this young, physically active military population indicates an urgent need for targeted interventions to reduce the cardiovascular risk.
Sreejit G.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Ahmed A.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Parveen N.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Jha V.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014
ESAT-6, an abundantly secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is an important virulence factor, inactivation of which leads to reduced virulence of M. tuberculosis. ESAT-6 alone, or in complex with its chaperone CFP-10 (ESAT-6:CFP-10), is known to modulate host immune responses; however, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. The structure of ESAT-6 or ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex does not suggest presence of enzymatic or DNA-binding activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that the crucial role played by ESAT-6 in the virulence of mycobacteria could be due to its interaction with some host cellular factors. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified that ESAT-6 interacts with the host protein beta-2-microglobulin (β2M), which was further confirmed by other assays, like GST pull down, co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. The C-terminal six amino acid residues (90–95) of ESAT-6 were found to be essential for this interaction. ESAT-6, in complex with CFP-10, also interacts with β2M. We found that ESAT-6/ESAT-6:CFP-10 can enter into the endoplasmic reticulum where it sequesters β2M to inhibit cell surface expression of MHC-I-β2M complexes, resulting in downregulation of class I-mediated antigen presentation. Interestingly, the ESAT-6:β2M complex could be detected in pleural biopsies of individuals suffering from pleural tuberculosis. Our data highlight a novel mechanism by which M. tuberculosis may undermine the host adaptive immune responses to establish a successful infection. Identification of such novel interactions may help us in designing small molecule inhibitors as well as effective vaccine design against tuberculosis. © 2014 Sreejit et al.
Jeyakumar S.M.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Vajreswari A.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research, Supplement | Year: 2015
During the last century, vitamin A has evolved from its classical role as a fat-soluble vitamin and attained the status of para-/autocrine hormone. Besides its well-established role in embryogenesis, growth and development, reproduction and vision, vitamin A has also been implicated in several other physiological processes. Emerging experimental evidences emphasize adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ with great propensity to continuous growth (throughout life). Due to various genetic and lifestyle factors, excess energy accumulates in adipose tissue as fat, resulting in obesity and other complications such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shed light on vitamin A metabolites; retinaldehyde and retinoic acid and participation of their pathway proteins in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and thus, obesity. In this context, we discuss here some of our important findings, which establish the role of vitamin A (supplementation) in obesity and its associated disorders by employing an obese rat model; WNIN/Ob strain. © 2015, Indian Council of Medical Research. All rights reserved.
Sinha J.K.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Ghosh S.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Raghunath M.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2014
Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.
Reddy S.Y.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Pullakhandam R.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Kumar B.D.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
BioMetals | Year: 2010
Lead (Pb) toxicity has been a serious concern in industrialized societies because of its association with functional deficits in nervous, haematopoietic and renal systems. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of thiamine on Pb toxicity. It is speculated that Pb chelation by thiamine may be a possible mechanism. However, the exact nature of these interactions remained elusive. In the present study we have characterized the interaction of Pb with thiamine using UV-Vis as well as fluorescence spectroscopic methods and studied the effect of thiamine treatment on blood and tissue Pb levels during simultaneous or post-exposure to Pb in rat model. The spectroscopic studies revealed that Pb interacts with the pyrimidine ring of thiamine, leading to its solubilization at physiological pH. Further, thiamine reduced the Pb levels in blood, kidney and bone during both simultaneous and post-exposure Pb treatment. Interestingly, thiamine appears to prevent the accumulation of Pb in bone during simultaneous treatment. Together these results suggest that pyrimidine ring of thiamine mediates its interaction with Pb, leading to the prevention of its accumulation and/or increased clearance from tissues. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010.
Mukhopadhyay S.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Nair S.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Ghosh S.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2012
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. Attempts to control this disease have proved difficult owing to our poor understanding of the pathobiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the emergence of strains that are resistant to multiple drugs currently available for treatment. Genome-wide expression profiling has provided new insight into the transcriptome signatures of the bacterium during infection, notably of macrophages and dendritic cells. These data indicate that M. tuberculosis expresses numerous genes to evade the host immune responses, to suit its intracellular life style, and to respond to various antibiotic drugs. Among the intracellularly induced genes, several have functions in lipid metabolism, cell wall synthesis, iron uptake, oxidative stress resistance, protein secretion, or inhibition of apoptosis. Herein we review these findings and discuss possible ways to exploit the data to understand the complex etiology of TB and to find new effective drug targets. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Reddy Y.S.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Aparna Y.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Ramalaksmi B.A.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Dinesh Kumar B.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research | Year: 2014
Aim To determine lead (Pb) and trace element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg) levels in placenta, maternal and cord blood; further, to assess the interactions between Pb and trace elements, if any.Methods A cluster of 'at term pregnant women' from rural and urban areas (n=30 each, total n=60) as well as their neonates after delivery were recruited. Maternal blood, heel prick neonatal blood, placenta and cord blood were collected at the time of parturition. Pb and trace element levels in blood/serum, placenta were determined on graphite furnace atomic absorption (AAS) and flame AAS respectively. Due to sample constraints, only Pb levels were determined in heel prick blood samples of neonates.Results There were no major abnormal signs and symptoms, however, 38% had pale conjunctiva and 13% had pigmented tongue. The blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in urban post-partum women compared to their rural counterparts. Higher BLL did not correlate with either pregnancy outcome or neonatal anthropometry. Maternal serum trace element levels were deficient in both rural and urban women. Significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between maternal and neonatal BLL as well as significant (P<0.05) inverse correlation between cord BLL and placental Pb levels were observed. Maternal and cord BLL correlated inversely (P<0.05) with maternal and cord serum Fe levels, respectively.Conclusion Urban post-partum women and their neonates were at higher risk with elevated BLL. Estimate of cord blood Pb may not be the true index of neonatal BLL. These observations must be confirmed in a larger cohort because prenatal/neonatal screening avoids the risks associated with rest of life. © 2014 The Authors.
Kota N.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Panpatil V.V.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Kaleb R.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Varanasi B.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR |
Polasa K.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
Ginger is an important medicinal herb has numerous bioactive components and is used in the management, control and/or treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to see the dose-response effect of ginger and evaluate the possible protective effects of dietary ginger on oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Inbred male Wistar/NIN rats of 8-9 weeks old were treated with 30 mg/kg of STZ. Rats were divided into different groups of control, diabetic non-treated, and diabetic treated with ginger powder at 0.5%, 1% and 5% respectively. After feeding for a month, blood and tissues were collected to see the effect of ginger on antioxidant status, DNA damage and bone marrow genotoxicity. In this study ginger exerted a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes by modulating antioxidant enzymes and glutathione and down regulating lipid and protein oxidation and inhibition in genotoxicity in a dose-response manner. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.