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Abid A.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | Boughamoura L.,Farhat Hachad Hospital | Mzid J.,Rouad Hospital | Fkih M.,Rabta Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Background: Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Xanthomas and coronary heart diseases (CHD) at an early age are the major clinical manifestations of the disease. Methods: 16 families with familial hypercholesterolemia from different regions in Tunisia participated in the study. Mutations within the LDLR gene were screened through DNA sequencing. Lipids values were measured by standard enzymatic methods. Results: We present here thirty five homozygotes and fifty six heterozygotes. Homozygotes presented extensive xanthomatosis, variable clinical manifestations of CHD, and total cholesterol levels in males and females of 17.26 ± 4.18 and 17.64 ± 2.59. mmol/L respectively. HDL-cholesterol levels were 0.62 ± 0.24 and 1.00 ± 0.61. mmol/L for males and females, respectively. None of the heterozygotes had tendon xanthomas (except for one female aged 62), eight had corneal arcus, and nine developed CHD mean between 46 and 88. years old. Total cholesterol levels in males and females ranged from 4.60 to 8.90 and from 4.30 to 10.50. mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Tunisian FH heterozygotes are characterized by a moderate clinical and biological expression of the disease. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Traissac P.,Institute of Research for Development | Bour A.,Université Ibn Tofail | Berger J.,Institute of Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

In North Africa, overnutrition has dramatically increased with the nutrition transition while micronutrient deficiencies persist, resulting in clustering of opposite types of malnutrition that can present a unique difficulty for public health interventions. We assessed the magnitude of the double burden of malnutrition among urban Moroccan and Tunisian women, as defined by the coexistence of overall or central adiposity and anemia or iron deficiency (ID), and explored the sociodemographic patterning of individual double burden. In cross-sectional surveys representative of the region around the capital city, we randomly selected 811 and 1689 nonpregnant women aged 20-49 y in Morocco and Tunisia, respectively. Four double burdens were analyzed: overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or increased risk abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) and anemia (blood hemoglobin <120 g/L) or ID (C-reactive protein-corrected serum ferritin <15 μg/L). Adjusted associations with 9 sociodemographic factors were estimated by logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight and ID was 67.0% and 45.2% in Morocco, respectively, and 69.5% and 27.0% in Tunisia, respectively, illustrating the population-level double burden. The coexistence of overall or central adiposity with ID was found in 29.8% and 30.1% of women inMorocco, respectively, and in 18.2% and 18.3%of women in Tunisia, respectively, quite evenly distributed across age, economic, or education groups. Generally, the rare, associated sociodemographic factors varied across the 4 subject-level double burdens and the 2 countries and differed fromthose usually associated with adiposity, anemia, or ID. Any double burden combining adiposity and anemia or ID should therefore be taken into consideration in all women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Elouej S.,Institute Pasteur Of Tunis | Elouej S.,Tunis el Manar University | Belfki-Benali H.,University of Sfax | Nagara M.,Institute Pasteur Of Tunis | And 23 more authors.
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders | Year: 2016

Background: Variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aim of the study: This study aims to assess the association of the rs9939609 variant and haplotypes in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in a Tunisian population sample. Methods: A total of 685 Tunisian subjects were genotyped for the rs9939609T>A using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Two variants rs1421085T>C and rs8057044A>G already genotyped in a previous study were used to test haplotype association of the FTO gene. Results: Genotype distribution of the variant rs9939609 was different between MetS and controls (P = 0.017). Individuals carrying TA genotypes had a significantly increased risk independently of body mass index or age (P = 0.009). The variant rs9939609 was also associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (P = 0.002). Among the eight haplotypes in the population, the haplotype GCA was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing the MetS, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher levels of fasting glucose and triglycerides (TGs) in the total sample and females, separately. Separate analysis by gender revealed a protective haplotype TGT among women (P = 0.023). Conclusions: FTO haplotypes have a strong influence on blood pressures and TG and IFG levels. These findings provide evidence that FTO gene may play a critical role in leading to MetS in Tunisian population. © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Tunis el Manar University, University of Sfax, Directorate of Basic Health Care, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of diabetes and its complications | Year: 2016

Variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the association of FTO variants in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region with MetS is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of FTO gene with MetS and its components in Tunisian population.Two variants in the FTO gene were genotyped: rs1421085 T>C and rs8057044 A>G in cases and controls from Tunisian population. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).The FTO rs1421085 variant conferred an increased risk to MetS (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14-2.26, P=0.024) that was abolished when adjusted for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), suggesting that the association may be due to variation in FPG levels. Indeed, this variant was associated to FPG (OR = 1.7, 95% CI=1.23-2.44, P=0.002) independently from BMI or age. The second polymorphism rs8057044 was associated with high blood pressure levels (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.06-1.99, P=0.019).This is the first study highlighting the association between FTO gene variants and MetS in Tunisian population. These findings provide evidence that FTO gene may play a critical role in leading to MetS in Tunisian population.


PubMed | Pharmacy Development, University of Tunis and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2015

Reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes may play an important role in the prevention of type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications. We analyzed the association between Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C, Mn-SOD T47C, and CAT -21 A/T gene polymorphisms and complications, in combination with tea consumption in Tunisian T2D. A sample of 366 T2D subjects was enrolled in this study. All participants were asked about tea consumption and frequency. Anthropometric, clinical, and routine biochemical characteristics were obtained from subjects updated medical records. Malondialdehyde, as an early marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in plasma samples. Urinary polyphenol derivatives (UPDs), as a marker of polyphenols intake, were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. SODs and CAT genotypes were determined by conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods. From all subjects, the results showed that in high tea consumers (>3 cups/day), the frequency of the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype was significantly higher in T2D without complications compared with T2D with complications (P = 0.03; OR = 0.284; 95%CI = 0.086-0.939). However, no significant associations were observed with Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C or CAT -21 A/T genes polymorphisms. Additionally, the evaluation of UPDs showed that individuals carrying the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype and consuming more than three cups of tea per day present significantly higher UPDs (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the Mn-SOD 47 C variant in combination with high tea consumption may provide protection against complications in T2D.


Xi B.,Shandong University | Zong X.,Capital Institute of Pediatrics | Kelishadi R.,Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease | Hong Y.M.,Ewha Womans University | And 42 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2016

Background-Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age, and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limits international comparisons of the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents by using 7 nationally representative data sets (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States). Methods and Results-Data on BP for 52 636 nonoverweight children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years were obtained from 7 large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all 7 countries by using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) by age and height were estimated by using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. In comparison with the BP levels of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the US Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower, whereas diastolic BP was similar. Conclusions-These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help to identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Abaidi H.,University of Tunis | Denden S.,Research Unit of Biology and Molecular Anthropology Applied to Development and Health | Ghazouani A.,University of Tunis | Trimeche A.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes may play an important role in the prevention of type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications. We analyzed the association between Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C, Mn-SOD T47C, and CAT -21 A/T gene polymorphisms and complications, in combination with tea consumption in Tunisian T2D. A sample of 366 T2D subjects was enrolled in this study. All participants were asked about tea consumption and frequency. Anthropometric, clinical, and routine biochemical characteristics were obtained from subjects’ updated medical records. Malondialdehyde, as an early marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in plasma samples. Urinary polyphenol derivatives (UPDs), as a marker of polyphenols intake, were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. SODs and CAT genotypes were determined by conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods. From all subjects, the results showed that in high tea consumers (>3 cups/ day), the frequency of the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype was significantly higher in T2D without complications compared with T2D with complications (P = 0.03; OR = 0.284; 95%CI = 0.086-0.939). However, no significant associations were observed with Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C or CAT -21 A/T genes polymorphisms. Additionally, the evaluation of UPDs showed that individuals carrying the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype and consuming more than three cups of tea per day present significantly higher UPDs (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the Mn-SOD 47 C variant in combination with high tea consumption may provide protection against complications in T2D. © FUNPEC-RP.


Gartner A.,IRD Montpellier | Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Berger J.,IRD Montpellier | Bour A.,Université Ibn Tofail | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: The correction of serum ferritin (SF) concentrations for inflammation because of infectious or parasitic diseases was recently proposed, especially in developing countries, but in many countries, adiposity has become the main cause of inflammation. Objective: We assessed, overall and by adiposity status, the bias in the estimation of iron deficiency (ID) on the basis of uncorrected SF. Design: A cross-sectional survey in 2010 in Rabat-Salé, Morocco, used a random sample of 811 women aged 20-49 y. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m2) (normal: BMI, 25; overweight: BMI ≥25 to <30; obese: BMI ≥30), waist circumference, and body fat. Inflammation was indicated by a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration >2 mg/L. ID was indicated by an SF concentration <15 μg/L. The correction factor of SF for inflammation was derived from our sample. Differential effects of SF correction on ID status on the basis of adiposity were assessed by models that included adiposity × correction interactions and accounted for the within-subject correlation. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 33.0% and of obesity was 34.0%. Inflammation (42.3%) was strongly linked with adiposity (20.1%, 37.6%, and 68.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P < 0.0001). SF increased from a CRP concentration >2 mg/L. The correction factor of SF was 0.65. The prevalence of ID (37.2% compared with 45.2%; difference -8.0%, P < 0.0001) was underestimated by not correcting SF, and the difference increased with adiposity (-2.9%, -8.5%, and -12.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P-interaction < 0.0001). Analogous results were observed for other adiposity measures. Conclusion: In developing countries where ID remains prevalent but rates of obesity are already high, corrected SF should be used when assessing ID status, even if infectious or parasitic diseases are no longer widespread. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01844349. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Fekih-Zaghbib S.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | Fekih-Zaghbib S.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Fildier A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Barrek S.,National Institute of Chemistry Research | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs<0.5μM) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs<0.5μM) including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2μM. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14μM). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Hospital Aziza Othmana, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Childrens Hospital Bechir Hamza
Type: | Journal: Hemoglobin | Year: 2016

The C/EBPE gene, located in 14q11.2, encodes for a B/zip-type transcription factor. The C/EBP is involved in terminal differentiation and functional maturity of granulocyte progenitor cells and in cell apoptosis during myeloid differentiation. A C/EBPE gene has recently been described as a candidate gene involved in clinical variability of -thalassemia (-thal). In this study, the C/EBPE gene was sequenced in 146 subjects divided into the severe type of -thal major (-TM) and moderate type of -thal intermedia (-TI), and a control group. The analysis identified the rs45496295 (C>T) polymorphism in the heterozygous state in 73.9% -TI patients, which was not the case in the -TM patients or in the control group. Thus, the T allele is consequently associated with the -TI group (p=10

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