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Xi B.,Shandong University | Zong X.,Capital Institute of Pediatrics | Kelishadi R.,Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease | Hong Y.M.,Ewha Womans University | And 42 more authors.

Background-Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age, and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limits international comparisons of the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents by using 7 nationally representative data sets (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States). Methods and Results-Data on BP for 52 636 nonoverweight children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years were obtained from 7 large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all 7 countries by using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) by age and height were estimated by using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. In comparison with the BP levels of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the US Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower, whereas diastolic BP was similar. Conclusions-These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help to identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Gartner A.,IRD Montpellier | Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Berger J.,IRD Montpellier | Bour A.,Universite Ibn Tofail | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: The correction of serum ferritin (SF) concentrations for inflammation because of infectious or parasitic diseases was recently proposed, especially in developing countries, but in many countries, adiposity has become the main cause of inflammation. Objective: We assessed, overall and by adiposity status, the bias in the estimation of iron deficiency (ID) on the basis of uncorrected SF. Design: A cross-sectional survey in 2010 in Rabat-Salé, Morocco, used a random sample of 811 women aged 20-49 y. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m2) (normal: BMI, 25; overweight: BMI ≥25 to <30; obese: BMI ≥30), waist circumference, and body fat. Inflammation was indicated by a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration >2 mg/L. ID was indicated by an SF concentration <15 μg/L. The correction factor of SF for inflammation was derived from our sample. Differential effects of SF correction on ID status on the basis of adiposity were assessed by models that included adiposity × correction interactions and accounted for the within-subject correlation. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 33.0% and of obesity was 34.0%. Inflammation (42.3%) was strongly linked with adiposity (20.1%, 37.6%, and 68.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P < 0.0001). SF increased from a CRP concentration >2 mg/L. The correction factor of SF was 0.65. The prevalence of ID (37.2% compared with 45.2%; difference -8.0%, P < 0.0001) was underestimated by not correcting SF, and the difference increased with adiposity (-2.9%, -8.5%, and -12.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P-interaction < 0.0001). Analogous results were observed for other adiposity measures. Conclusion: In developing countries where ID remains prevalent but rates of obesity are already high, corrected SF should be used when assessing ID status, even if infectious or parasitic diseases are no longer widespread. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01844349. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Fekih-Zaghbib S.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | Fekih-Zaghbib S.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Fildier A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Barrek S.,National Institute of Chemistry Research | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology

Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs<0.5μM) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs<0.5μM) including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2μM. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14μM). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Abaidi H.,University of Tunis | Denden S.,Research Unit of Biology and Molecular Anthropology Applied to Development and Health | Ghazouani A.,University of Tunis | Trimeche A.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research

Reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes may play an important role in the prevention of type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications. We analyzed the association between Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C, Mn-SOD T47C, and CAT -21 A/T gene polymorphisms and complications, in combination with tea consumption in Tunisian T2D. A sample of 366 T2D subjects was enrolled in this study. All participants were asked about tea consumption and frequency. Anthropometric, clinical, and routine biochemical characteristics were obtained from subjects’ updated medical records. Malondialdehyde, as an early marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in plasma samples. Urinary polyphenol derivatives (UPDs), as a marker of polyphenols intake, were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. SODs and CAT genotypes were determined by conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods. From all subjects, the results showed that in high tea consumers (>3 cups/ day), the frequency of the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype was significantly higher in T2D without complications compared with T2D with complications (P = 0.03; OR = 0.284; 95%CI = 0.086-0.939). However, no significant associations were observed with Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C or CAT -21 A/T genes polymorphisms. Additionally, the evaluation of UPDs showed that individuals carrying the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype and consuming more than three cups of tea per day present significantly higher UPDs (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the Mn-SOD 47 C variant in combination with high tea consumption may provide protection against complications in T2D. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Traissac P.,Institute of Research for Development | Bour A.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Berger J.,Institute of Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition

In North Africa, overnutrition has dramatically increased with the nutrition transition while micronutrient deficiencies persist, resulting in clustering of opposite types of malnutrition that can present a unique difficulty for public health interventions. We assessed the magnitude of the double burden of malnutrition among urban Moroccan and Tunisian women, as defined by the coexistence of overall or central adiposity and anemia or iron deficiency (ID), and explored the sociodemographic patterning of individual double burden. In cross-sectional surveys representative of the region around the capital city, we randomly selected 811 and 1689 nonpregnant women aged 20-49 y in Morocco and Tunisia, respectively. Four double burdens were analyzed: overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or increased risk abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) and anemia (blood hemoglobin <120 g/L) or ID (C-reactive protein-corrected serum ferritin <15 μg/L). Adjusted associations with 9 sociodemographic factors were estimated by logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight and ID was 67.0% and 45.2% in Morocco, respectively, and 69.5% and 27.0% in Tunisia, respectively, illustrating the population-level double burden. The coexistence of overall or central adiposity with ID was found in 29.8% and 30.1% of women inMorocco, respectively, and in 18.2% and 18.3%of women in Tunisia, respectively, quite evenly distributed across age, economic, or education groups. Generally, the rare, associated sociodemographic factors varied across the 4 subject-level double burdens and the 2 countries and differed fromthose usually associated with adiposity, anemia, or ID. Any double burden combining adiposity and anemia or ID should therefore be taken into consideration in all women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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