National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology

Tunis, Tunisia

National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology

Tunis, Tunisia
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Aouni R.,University of Carthage | Aouni R.,SURVEN Research Laboratory Monitoring and Nutritional Epidemiology in Tunisia | Ben Attia M.,University of Carthage | Jaafoura M.H.,Orthopedic InstituteMohamed Kassab | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2017

Objective: To evaluate the effects of ethanol-water (80:20) extract of Marrubium vulgare (M. vulgare) on the hematological parameters, macroscopic and histological aspects of the uterus and fetus in non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Methods: Female rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n = 9), group N (normal rats) and group G (pregnant rats) considered as control groups, group NE (normal rats treated with the ethanol-water (80:20, v/v) extract of M. vulgare) and group GE (pregnant rats treated with the extract). The ethanol-water (80:20) plant extract was administered in a single daily dose 1 g/kg at the morning, during 19 d. On the 19 day of the experiment, animals were sacrificed, the uterus and fetuses were removed for the morphological and histological studies and the blood was collected in EDTA tubes for the measurement of hematological parameters with the use of an automate 'HORIBA ABX Micros 60 Hematology Analyzer'. Results: Our results showed, in group NE and GE, a significant decrease on hematological parameters: red blood cells (NE: 18.6%; GE: 38.4%), hematocrit (NE: 13.8%; GE: 20.4%), hemoglobin (NE: 12.1%; GE: 8.3%) and mean corpuscular volume (NE: 6.4%; GE: 2%) with P more less a 0.05. Indeed, the extract of M. vulgare caused a significant decrease on the mean implantations of fetuses (82.5%, P < 0.001) and their size (47.2%, P < 0.01). As for the macroscopic and histological appearance of uterus, our data showed no change in normal treated rats. In contrast, the treated pregnant rats showed a severe histological change characterized by the existence of location of stopped gestation. Furthermore, it was also found in the uterus of these rat lyses placental and embryo tissue. Conclusions: All these results support the hypothesis of an abortifacient effect of M. vulgare. © 2017 Hainan Medical University.


Laouini N.,Childrens Hospital | Laouini N.,University of Carthage | Sahli C.A.,Childrens Hospital | Jouini L.,Childrens Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2017

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest enzymopathy worldwide. The incidence depends essentially on the methods used for the assessment. In this respect, we attempted in this study to set cut-off values of G6PD activity to discriminate among normal, heterozygous, and deficient individuals using the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Blood samples from 250 female and 302 male subjects were enrolled in this study. The G6PD activity was determined using a quantitative assay. The common G6PD mutations in Tunisia were determined using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) method. The ROC curve was used to choice the best cut-off. Normal G6PD values were 7.69±2.37, 7.86±2.39, and 7.51±2.35 U/g Hb for the entire, male, and female groups, respectively. Cut-off values for the total, male, and female were determined using the WHO classification and ROC curves analysis. In the male population, both cut-offs established using ROC curve analysis (4.00 U/g Hb) and the 60% level (3.82 U/g Hb), respectively are sensitive and specific resulting in a good efficiency of discrimination between deficient and normal males. For the female group the ROC cut-off (5.84 U/g Hb) seems better than the 60% level cut-off (3.88 U/g Hb) to discriminate between normal and heterozygote or homozygote women with higher Youden Index. The establishment of the normal values for a population is important for a better evaluation of the assay result. The ROC curve analysis is an alternative method to determine the status of patients since it correlates DNA analysis and G6PD activity. © 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.


Abid A.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | Boughamoura L.,Farhat Hachad Hospital | Mzid J.,Rouad Hospital | Fkih M.,Rabta Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Background: Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Xanthomas and coronary heart diseases (CHD) at an early age are the major clinical manifestations of the disease. Methods: 16 families with familial hypercholesterolemia from different regions in Tunisia participated in the study. Mutations within the LDLR gene were screened through DNA sequencing. Lipids values were measured by standard enzymatic methods. Results: We present here thirty five homozygotes and fifty six heterozygotes. Homozygotes presented extensive xanthomatosis, variable clinical manifestations of CHD, and total cholesterol levels in males and females of 17.26 ± 4.18 and 17.64 ± 2.59. mmol/L respectively. HDL-cholesterol levels were 0.62 ± 0.24 and 1.00 ± 0.61. mmol/L for males and females, respectively. None of the heterozygotes had tendon xanthomas (except for one female aged 62), eight had corneal arcus, and nine developed CHD mean between 46 and 88. years old. Total cholesterol levels in males and females ranged from 4.60 to 8.90 and from 4.30 to 10.50. mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Tunisian FH heterozygotes are characterized by a moderate clinical and biological expression of the disease. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Traissac P.,Institute of Research for Development | Bour A.,Université Ibn Tofail | Berger J.,Institute of Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

In North Africa, overnutrition has dramatically increased with the nutrition transition while micronutrient deficiencies persist, resulting in clustering of opposite types of malnutrition that can present a unique difficulty for public health interventions. We assessed the magnitude of the double burden of malnutrition among urban Moroccan and Tunisian women, as defined by the coexistence of overall or central adiposity and anemia or iron deficiency (ID), and explored the sociodemographic patterning of individual double burden. In cross-sectional surveys representative of the region around the capital city, we randomly selected 811 and 1689 nonpregnant women aged 20-49 y in Morocco and Tunisia, respectively. Four double burdens were analyzed: overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or increased risk abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) and anemia (blood hemoglobin <120 g/L) or ID (C-reactive protein-corrected serum ferritin <15 μg/L). Adjusted associations with 9 sociodemographic factors were estimated by logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight and ID was 67.0% and 45.2% in Morocco, respectively, and 69.5% and 27.0% in Tunisia, respectively, illustrating the population-level double burden. The coexistence of overall or central adiposity with ID was found in 29.8% and 30.1% of women inMorocco, respectively, and in 18.2% and 18.3%of women in Tunisia, respectively, quite evenly distributed across age, economic, or education groups. Generally, the rare, associated sociodemographic factors varied across the 4 subject-level double burdens and the 2 countries and differed fromthose usually associated with adiposity, anemia, or ID. Any double burden combining adiposity and anemia or ID should therefore be taken into consideration in all women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | Tunis el Manar University, University of Sfax, Directorate of Basic Health Care, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of diabetes and its complications | Year: 2016

Variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the association of FTO variants in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region with MetS is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of FTO gene with MetS and its components in Tunisian population.Two variants in the FTO gene were genotyped: rs1421085 T>C and rs8057044 A>G in cases and controls from Tunisian population. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).The FTO rs1421085 variant conferred an increased risk to MetS (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14-2.26, P=0.024) that was abolished when adjusted for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), suggesting that the association may be due to variation in FPG levels. Indeed, this variant was associated to FPG (OR = 1.7, 95% CI=1.23-2.44, P=0.002) independently from BMI or age. The second polymorphism rs8057044 was associated with high blood pressure levels (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.06-1.99, P=0.019).This is the first study highlighting the association between FTO gene variants and MetS in Tunisian population. These findings provide evidence that FTO gene may play a critical role in leading to MetS in Tunisian population.


PubMed | Pharmacy Development, University of Tunis and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2015

Reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes may play an important role in the prevention of type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications. We analyzed the association between Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C, Mn-SOD T47C, and CAT -21 A/T gene polymorphisms and complications, in combination with tea consumption in Tunisian T2D. A sample of 366 T2D subjects was enrolled in this study. All participants were asked about tea consumption and frequency. Anthropometric, clinical, and routine biochemical characteristics were obtained from subjects updated medical records. Malondialdehyde, as an early marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in plasma samples. Urinary polyphenol derivatives (UPDs), as a marker of polyphenols intake, were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. SODs and CAT genotypes were determined by conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods. From all subjects, the results showed that in high tea consumers (>3 cups/day), the frequency of the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype was significantly higher in T2D without complications compared with T2D with complications (P = 0.03; OR = 0.284; 95%CI = 0.086-0.939). However, no significant associations were observed with Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C or CAT -21 A/T genes polymorphisms. Additionally, the evaluation of UPDs showed that individuals carrying the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype and consuming more than three cups of tea per day present significantly higher UPDs (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the Mn-SOD 47 C variant in combination with high tea consumption may provide protection against complications in T2D.


Abaidi H.,University of Tunis | Denden S.,Research Unit of Biology and Molecular Anthropology Applied to Development and Health | Ghazouani A.,University of Tunis | Trimeche A.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes may play an important role in the prevention of type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications. We analyzed the association between Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C, Mn-SOD T47C, and CAT -21 A/T gene polymorphisms and complications, in combination with tea consumption in Tunisian T2D. A sample of 366 T2D subjects was enrolled in this study. All participants were asked about tea consumption and frequency. Anthropometric, clinical, and routine biochemical characteristics were obtained from subjects’ updated medical records. Malondialdehyde, as an early marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in plasma samples. Urinary polyphenol derivatives (UPDs), as a marker of polyphenols intake, were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. SODs and CAT genotypes were determined by conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods. From all subjects, the results showed that in high tea consumers (>3 cups/ day), the frequency of the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype was significantly higher in T2D without complications compared with T2D with complications (P = 0.03; OR = 0.284; 95%CI = 0.086-0.939). However, no significant associations were observed with Cu/Zn-SOD +35 A/C or CAT -21 A/T genes polymorphisms. Additionally, the evaluation of UPDs showed that individuals carrying the Mn-SOD 47 CC genotype and consuming more than three cups of tea per day present significantly higher UPDs (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the Mn-SOD 47 C variant in combination with high tea consumption may provide protection against complications in T2D. © FUNPEC-RP.


Gartner A.,IRD Montpellier | Gartner A.,Institute of Research for Development | Berger J.,IRD Montpellier | Bour A.,Université Ibn Tofail | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: The correction of serum ferritin (SF) concentrations for inflammation because of infectious or parasitic diseases was recently proposed, especially in developing countries, but in many countries, adiposity has become the main cause of inflammation. Objective: We assessed, overall and by adiposity status, the bias in the estimation of iron deficiency (ID) on the basis of uncorrected SF. Design: A cross-sectional survey in 2010 in Rabat-Salé, Morocco, used a random sample of 811 women aged 20-49 y. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m2) (normal: BMI, 25; overweight: BMI ≥25 to <30; obese: BMI ≥30), waist circumference, and body fat. Inflammation was indicated by a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration >2 mg/L. ID was indicated by an SF concentration <15 μg/L. The correction factor of SF for inflammation was derived from our sample. Differential effects of SF correction on ID status on the basis of adiposity were assessed by models that included adiposity × correction interactions and accounted for the within-subject correlation. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 33.0% and of obesity was 34.0%. Inflammation (42.3%) was strongly linked with adiposity (20.1%, 37.6%, and 68.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P < 0.0001). SF increased from a CRP concentration >2 mg/L. The correction factor of SF was 0.65. The prevalence of ID (37.2% compared with 45.2%; difference -8.0%, P < 0.0001) was underestimated by not correcting SF, and the difference increased with adiposity (-2.9%, -8.5%, and -12.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P-interaction < 0.0001). Analogous results were observed for other adiposity measures. Conclusion: In developing countries where ID remains prevalent but rates of obesity are already high, corrected SF should be used when assessing ID status, even if infectious or parasitic diseases are no longer widespread. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01844349. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Fekih-Zaghbib S.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology | Fekih-Zaghbib S.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Fildier A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Barrek S.,National Institute of Chemistry Research | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs<0.5μM) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs<0.5μM) including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2μM. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14μM). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Hospital Aziza Othmana, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Childrens Hospital Bechir Hamza
Type: | Journal: Hemoglobin | Year: 2016

The C/EBPE gene, located in 14q11.2, encodes for a B/zip-type transcription factor. The C/EBP is involved in terminal differentiation and functional maturity of granulocyte progenitor cells and in cell apoptosis during myeloid differentiation. A C/EBPE gene has recently been described as a candidate gene involved in clinical variability of -thalassemia (-thal). In this study, the C/EBPE gene was sequenced in 146 subjects divided into the severe type of -thal major (-TM) and moderate type of -thal intermedia (-TI), and a control group. The analysis identified the rs45496295 (C>T) polymorphism in the heterozygous state in 73.9% -TI patients, which was not the case in the -TM patients or in the control group. Thus, the T allele is consequently associated with the -TI group (p=10

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