National Institute of Miners Health
National Institute of Miners Health
Dhumne U.L.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Jawade A.A.,National Institute of Miners Health
Anthropologist | Year: 2011
The present study was carried out to assess the sickle cell anemia and morbidity pattern among rural population in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra. The subjects were screened by solubility test and positive samples were subjected to cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis. The study showed that 18.3 % subjects were having sickle cell anemia. The common morbidity forms were joint pain (14.2 %) and attacks of abdominal pain (8.5 %). Sickle β-thalassaemia was not found in this population. © Kamla-Raj 2011.
Tangde V.M.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University |
Prajapati S.S.,National Institute Of Miners Health |
Mandal B.B.,National Institute Of Miners Health |
Kulkarni N.P.,National Institute Of Miners Health
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2017
Red mud is the industrial waste by-product produced in alumina refineries. The red mud (RM) was activated using 1 N hydrochloric acid (hereafter referred as RMA). In the present communication, RM and RMA are used to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of effective adsorption for removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The characterization of red mud is supported by BET, SEM, TG, DTG, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Batch experiments are carried out as a function of initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity of phosphate (112 mg g−1 of RMA) is obtained using Langmuir adsorption isotherm in case of RMA in comparison to raw RM (56 mg g−1 of RM) at pH 2. Analysis of adsorption data indicates that the Langmuir isotherm provides a better fitting than Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption data were used to study first- and second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion models. Second-order kinetics is seen to be the best fitted for removal of phosphate. Thermodynamic parameters such as Δ H0, Δ S0 and Δ G0 were obtained. Negative value of Gibbs energy suggests the spontaneity of the adsorption phenomena which is in good agreement with the negative value of entropy indicating decrease in randomness of adsorbents at the solid and liquid interface. The characterization results and separation factor (RL) suggest that RMA and RM can be used as commercial adsorbent for removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. © 2017, University of Tehran.
Manwar V.D.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Mandal B.B.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Pal A.K.,Indian School of Mines
Noise and Health | Year: 2016
Background: Noise mapping being an established practice in Europe is hardly practiced for noise management in India although it is mandatory in Indian mines as per guidelines of the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS). As a pilot study, noise mapping was conducted in an opencast mine with three different models; one based on the baseline operating conditions in two shifts (Situation A), and two other virtual situations where either production targets were enhanced by extending working hours to three shifts (Situation B) or only by increased mechanization and not changing the duration of work (Situation C). Methods: Noise sources were categorized as point, line, area, and moving sources. Considering measured power of the sources, specific meteorological and geographical parameters, noise maps were generated using Predictor LimA software. Results: In all three situations, Lden values were 95 dB(A) and 70-80 dB(A) near drill machine and haul roads, respectively. Noise contours were wider in Situation C due to increase in frequency of dumpers. Lden values near Shovel 1 and Shovel 2 under Situation B increased by 5 dB and 3 dB, respectively due to expansion of working hours. In Situation C, noise levels were >82 dB(A) around shovels. Noise levels on both sides of conveyor belts were in the range of 80-85 dB(A) in Situations A and C whereas it was 85-90 dB(A) in Situation B. Near crusher plants, it ranged from 80 to 90 dB(A) in Situations A and C and between 85 and 95 dB(A) in Situation B. In all situations, noise levels near residential areas exceeded the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) limits, i.e., 55 dB(A). Conclusions: For all situations, predicted noise levels exceeded CPCB limits within the mine and nearby residential area. Residential areas near the crusher plants are vulnerable to increased noise propagation. It is recommended to put an acoustic barrier near the crusher plant to attenuate the noise propagation.
PubMed | National Institute of Miners Health and Indian School of Mines
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Noise & health | Year: 2016
Noise mapping being an established practice in Europe is hardly practiced for noise management in India although it is mandatory in Indian mines as per guidelines of the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS). As a pilot study, noise mapping was conducted in an opencast mine with three different models; one based on the baseline operating conditions in two shifts (Situation A), and two other virtual situations where either production targets were enhanced by extending working hours to three shifts (Situation B) or only by increased mechanization and not changing the duration of work (SituationC).Noise sources were categorized as point, line, area, and moving sources. Considering measured power of the sources, specific meteorological and geographical parameters, noise maps were generated using Predictor LimA software.In all three situations, Lden values were 95 dB(A) and 70-80 dB(A) near drill machine and haul roads, respectively. Noise contours were wider in Situation C due to increase in frequency of dumpers. Lden values near Shovel 1 and Shovel 2 under Situation B increased by 5dB and 3dB, respectively due to expansion of working hours. In Situation C, noise levels were >82 dB(A) around shovels. Noise levels on both sides of conveyor belts were in the range of 80-85 dB(A) in Situations A and C whereas it was 85-90 dB(A) in Situation B. Near crusher plants, it ranged from 80 to 90 dB(A) in Situations A and C and between 85 and 95 dB(A) in Situation B. In all situations, noise levels near residential areas exceeded the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) limits, i.e., 55 dB(A).For all situations, predicted noise levels exceeded CPCB limits within the mine and nearby residential area. Residential areas near the crusher plants are vulnerable to increased noise propagation. It is recommended to put an acoustic barrier near the crusher plant to attenuate the noise propagation.
Prajapati S.S.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Najar P.A.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminum Research Development and Design Center |
Tangde V.M.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Advances in Physical Chemistry | Year: 2016
The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM) has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2-200 μ) studied, the samples treated with 1 M HCl for 2 h were found better for the selective adsorption of phosphate in comparison with untreated and heat treated RM samples. The presence of phosphate in the aqueous samples collected after adsorption studies with red mud was determined by standard spectrophotometric procedure using ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid in nitrate medium at λmax 880 nm. The studies reported significant adsorption of phosphate on acid treated red mud in comparison with adsorption of phosphate on untreated and heat treated red mud, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate on raw red mud and activated red mud was further investigated with respect to stirring time, pH of the solution, dose of adsorbent, and varying phosphate concentration. Acid treated RM is observed as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. © 2016 Shivkumar S. Prajapati et al.
Tumane R.G.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Pingle S.K.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Jawade A.A.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Nath N.N.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010
Silicosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by granulomatous and fibrotic lesions, which occurs due to accumulation of respirable silica mineral particles. Apoptosis is an important phenomenon of cell death in silicosis. The relationship between silica dust and its exposure is well established. But, the complex chain of cellular responses, which leads to caspase activation in silicosis, has not been fully discovered. Caspase activation plays a central role in the execution of apoptosis. Silica-induced apoptosis of the alveolar macrophages could potentially favor a proinflammatory state, occurring in the lungs of silicotic patients, resulting in the activation of caspase prior to induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Recent studies indicated that apoptosis may involve in pulmonary disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the underling mechanism of biochemical pathways in caspase activation that have been ignored so far in silicosis. In addition, caspase could be a key apoptotic protein that can be used as an effective biomarker for the study of occupational diseases. It may provide an important link in understanding the molecular mechanisms of silica-induced lung pathogenesis.
Mandal B.B.,National Institute Of Miners Health |
Mansfield N.J.,Loughborough University
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2016
Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded. © 2016 Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute CIOP-PIB.
Kamavisdar A.,National Institute of Miners Health
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2010
Heavy metals are widely used in various industries and are generally considered as a part of environmental pollution. Heavy metal, as defined by the Van Nostrand's chemist dictionary is a meal of high specific gravity characterized by strong attraction to biological tissues with slow eliminations. Some of the metals, that is As, Sb, Se, Pb, Cd, Hg, Tl, Cr, V, Zn, etc., are seriously toxic to human beings and when absorbed in quite small amounts. Some of the metals, that is Pb, Hg, Cd, As, etc., are highly dangerous as they have great affinity for sulphur and attack sulphur bond in enzyme, thus immobilizing it. They bind to cell membrane, affecting transport processes through the cell wall and also tend to precipitate phosphate bicompounds or catalyze their decomposition. Many heavy metals are essential to life, even though they occur only in trace amounts in the body tissue. They can be regarded as toxic if they injure the growth or metabolism of cells when they present above a given concentration. Almost all metals are toxic at high concentration and some are severe poisonous even at very low concentration. For example: Iron is a micronutrient, however, its presence beyond permissible limit (300 μg/L) in drinking water may cause adverse effects, for example a plastic anaemia, hemolytic anaemia, haemochromatosis and transfusional siderosis. In developing countries, like India, both surface and ground water are generally used for drinking purposes. Similarly, lead is one of the most toxic elements in the environment and its presence beyond 15 μg/L in drinking water is harmful for health. Lead pollution in urban atmosphere is contributed by sources, for example industrial processes, municipal waste, automobile emission, etc. Exactly, like iron and lead, each and every metal has an optimum range of concentration, in excess of which the element is considered as toxic. In this paper attempts are made to discuss studies in relation with heavy metals, their sources and effects on general health. © 2010 - Kalpana Corporation.
Tripathi P.,Manipal University India |
Tiwari R.R.,National Institute of Miners Health |
Kamath R.,Manipal University India
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2016
Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8%) cases of physical assault, 1 (4%) case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88%) cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002) association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation. © 2016, NIOC Health Organization. All rights reserved.
PubMed | National Institute of Miners Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2015
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition described by the group of risk factors associated with obesity that raise the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. MS has an increasing trend in developing countries with change of diet and lifestyle. Many studies in India have reported high prevalence of MS among general population however there is little information available about the same in working population.The present study was conducted among 281 mine employees from an organized mining company from Southern India. The workers were classified into different sub occupational groups according to ISCO-88. WHO Criteria was used for the diagnosis of MS.The overall prevalence of MS in mine employees was about 17%. Among different sub occupations, the highest was observed in professional group of 52.9% and lowest in elementary occupations of 9.4%. In other sub occupational groups it was 23.3% in clerical, 18.9% in trade workers, 17.5% in technicians and 15.5% in machine operators. Occurrence of MS when compared in different sub occupations was statistically significant (P = <0.001). Further MS was found to be 6.4% in the 18-30 years of age group which significantly increased to 40.3% in the 51-60 years age group suggesting direct relation of MS with increase in age.Mining being physical demanding occupation prevalence of MS is assumed to be lower than the general population; however it was observed that the prevalence is in similar line to that of general population with the prevalence ranging from 9.4% to 52.9% among different sub occupations. Hence it is concluded that there is need of health education and promotion among the mine workers.