National Institute of Metrologic Research INRiM

Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

National Institute of Metrologic Research INRiM

Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy
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Picollo F.,University of Turin | Picollo F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Picollo F.,Consorzio Nazionale Inter universitario per le Science fisiche della Materia | Battiato A.,University of Turin | And 25 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2017

In the present work, we report on the monolithic fabrication by means of ion beam lithography of hollow micro-channels within a diamond substrate, to be employed for microfluidic applications.The fabrication strategy takes advantage of ion beam induced damage to convert diamond into graphite, which is characterized by a higher reactivity to oxidative etching with respect to the chemically inert pristine structure. This phase transition occurs in sub-superficial layers thanks to the peculiar damage profile of MeV ions, which mostly damage the target material at their end of range.The structures were obtained by irradiating commercial CVD diamond samples with a micrometric collimated C+ ion beam at three different energies (4MeV, 3.5MeV and 3MeV) at a total fluence of 2×1016 cm-2. The chosen multiple-energy implantation strategy allows to obtain a thick box-like highly damaged region ranging from 1.6μm to 2.1μm below the sample surface. High-temperature annealing was performed to both promote the graphitization of the ion-induced amorphous layer and to recover the pristine crystalline structure in the cap layer. Finally, the graphite was removed by ozone etching, obtaining monolithic microfluidic structures.These prototypal microfluidic devices were tested injecting aqueous solutions and the evidence of the passage of fluids through the channels was confirmed by confocal fluorescent microscopy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Picollo F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Picollo F.,University of Turin | Picollo F.,National Interuniversity Consortium for the Physical science of Matter | Rubanov S.,University of Melbourne | And 19 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2016

We report on the structural modifications induced by a λ = 532 nm ns-pulsed high-power laser on sub-superficial graphitic layers in single-crystal diamond realized by means of MeV ion implantation. A systematic characterization of the structures obtained under different laser irradiation conditions (power density, number of pulses) and subsequent thermal annealing was performed by different electron microscopy techniques. The main feature observed after laser irradiation is the thickening of the pre-existing graphitic layer. Cross-sectional SEM imaging was performed to directly measure the thickness of the modified layers, and subsequent selective etching of the buried layers was employed to both assess their graphitic nature and enhance the SEM imaging contrast. In particular, it was found that for optimal irradiation parameters the laser processing induces a six-fold increase the thickness of sub-superficial graphitic layers without inducing mechanical failures in the surrounding crystal. TEM microscopy and EELS spectroscopy allowed a detailed analysis of the internal structure of the laser-irradiated layers, highlighting the presence of different nano-graphitic and amorphous layers. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of high-power laser irradiation for an accurate tuning of the geometrical and structural features of graphitic structures embedded in single-crystal diamond, and open new opportunities in diamond fabrication. © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc.


Picollo F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Picollo F.,University of Turin | Battiato A.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Battiato A.,University of Turin | And 11 more authors.
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16-channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Picollo F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Battiato A.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Carbone E.,University of Turin | Croin L.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 6 more authors.
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.


Picollo F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Picollo F.,University of Turin | Picollo F.,Consorzio Nazionale Inter universitario per le Science Fisiche della Materia | Battiato A.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 16 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015

In the present work we report about a parallel-processing ion beam fabrication technique whereby high-density sub-superficial graphitic microstructures can be created in diamond. Ion beam implantation is an effective tool for the structural modification of diamond: in particular ion-damaged diamond can be converted into graphite, therefore obtaining an electrically conductive phase embedded in an optically transparent and highly insulating matrix. The proposed fabrication process consists in the combination of Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. FIB micromachining is employed to define micro-apertures in the contact masks consisting of thin (<10 μm) deposited metal layers through which ions are implanted in the sample. A prototypical single-cell biosensor was realized with the above described technique. The biosensor has 16 independent electrodes converging inside a circular area of 20 μm diameter (typical neuroendocrine cells size) for the simultaneous recording of amperometric signals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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