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Das P.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | Samuels S.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Desjeux P.,Institute for OneWorld Health | Mittal A.,Institute for OneWorld Health | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010

The study presents the findings of a population-based survey of the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the rural areas of one VL-endemic district in Bihar, India. Stratified multi-stage sampling was applied in the selection of blocks, villages, hamlets, and households. We screened 15 178 households (91 000 individuals) in 80 villages in 7 of 27 administrative blocks of the district, East Champaran. We identified 227 VL cases that occurred in the past 12 months: 149 treated individuals who survived, 14 who died from VL, and 64 active cases. The high-incidence stratum had an estimated incidence of 35.6 cases per 10 000 persons per year (90% CI: 27.7-45.7). The annual incidence rate in the medium stratum areas was 16.8 cases per 10 000 (90% CI: 9.3-30.6). The combined annual incidence rate for the high and medium areas combined was 21.9 cases per 10 000 per year, (90% CI: 14.0-34.2). The Government of India's VL elimination goal is to reduce the VL incidence to one case per 10 000 at the sub-district level; thus, a 35-fold reduction will be required in those areas with the highest VL incidence. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Sarnoff R.,Institute for OneWorld Health | Desai J.,Research for Development India | Desjeux P.,Institute for OneWorld Health | Mittal A.,Institute for OneWorld Health | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010

Objective: To estimate the economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the rural population of one VL endemic district of Bihar, the state with 85% of India's cases. Methods Using a survey of a stratified multistage sampling of 15 178 households with 214 individuals with VL in the previous 12 months, the study provides data on VL treatment expenditures, financing and days of work lost in the context of overall household expenditures, income sources and assets. Results Median household expenditures on VL treatment represent, on average, 11% of annual household expenditures and an estimated 7 months of an individual's income at the daily wage in rural Bihar. With 87% of households forced to take out loans to finance disease costs, VL can contribute to a spiral of increasing poverty. The current pattern of VL treatment, with multiple visits and treatments for a single episode of illness, significantly increases the economic burden on the household. Conclusion India's National Elimination Program to make effective treatments accessible to the rural poor, if combined with expanded efforts to improve timely access to diagnosis by conducting rapid diagnostic tests closer to the community (and mobilizing the rural population to seek effective treatment earlier), can reduce VL's economic burden on India's rural households. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Juneja A.,National Institute of Medical Statistics | Sharma S.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Sample size is one of the basics issues, which medical researcher including oncologist faces with any research program. The current communication attempts to discuss the computation of sample size when sensitivity and specificity are being evaluated. The article intends to present the situation that the researcher could easily visualize for appropriate use of sample size techniques for sensitivity and specificity when any screening method for early detection of cancer is in question. Moreover, the researcher would be in a position to efficiently communicate with a statistician for sample size computation and most importantly applicability of the results under the conditions of the negotiated precision. Source

Sethi S.K.,RML Hospital | Goyal D.,RML Hospital | Yadav D.K.,RML Hospital | Shukla U.,RML Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2011

Objective To investigate the incidence, implicating factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients admitted to a pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods Design: A retrospective review study. Setting: A 10-bed cardiothoracic ICU. Patients: One hundred and twenty-four children (<18 years of age) admitted to the cardiothoracic ICU following CPB between January 2007 and December 2009. Methods: Age, sex, diagnosis, baseline and post-surgery hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count and biochemistry were recorded. Baseline and postoperative urea (mg/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), urine output (ml/kg/h) and inotrope dose were also recorded daily. The duration of CPB was noted. Postoperative cardiac, renal, hepatic, neurologic and respiratory dysfunctions were recorded. Results Seven (5%) children developed AKI stage I, five children (4%) developed AKI stage II and two children developed AKI stage III (2%). All patients with AKI had a longer stay in hospital and increased mortality. Two children required dialysis for AKI and none developed chronic renal impairment. All patients with AKI stage III died during the ICU stay. Using stepwise regression, younger age (<1 year), weight <10 kg, pump failure, sepsis and duration of CPB >90 min were significant risk factors identified for developing AKI. Conclusions AKI is common and occurred in 11% of our patients following CPB; however, AKI requiring renal replacement therapy is uncommon. © Japanese Society of Nephrology 2011. Source

Rastogi M.,SASTRA University | Ojha R.P.,SASTRA University | Devi B.P.,SASTRA University | Aggarwal A.,National Institute of Medical Statistics | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2012

Bacopa monnieri (L.) is a revered medicinal plant of traditional Indian system of medicine effective against cognitive impairment in ageing and SDAT. In our previous study, long term administration of bacosides was found to exhibit remarkable anti ageing effect, ameliorate age associated neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits and prevent hippocampal neuronal degeneration in middle aged and aged rat brain cortex. In continuation to the previous study, the present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of bacosides against age related chronic neuroinflammation in Wistar rat brain on 3 months treatment. Recently, neuroinflammation has gained considerable interest in age associated neurodegeneration and pathologies like SDAT due to its slow onset and chronic nature. The results of the present study demonstrated the significant attenuation of age dependant elevation of pro inflammatory cytokines, iNOS protein expression, total nitrite and lipofuscin content in middle aged and aged rat brain cortex on long term oral administration of bacosides. Thus, the present results suggest that bacosides possess immense potential to act as a neuroprotective agent due to its pleiotropic action for the prevention of ageing complications and SDAT progression. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

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