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Soto-Escageda J.A.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNZS | Estanol-Vidal B.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNZS | Vidal-Victoria C.A.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Michel-Chavez A.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNZS | And 2 more authors.
Salud Mental

Background: Salt consumption activates the brain reward system, inducing cravings and the search for salted food. Its excessive intake is associated with high blood pressure and obesity. The high quantity of salt in processed food is most likely a major cause of the global pandemic of hypertension (HT). Objective: To review the current information on the topic of salt addiction and the health consequences this has. Method: A search in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost databases was conducted with the keywords "salt", "salt addiction", and "food addiction". Articles with information relative to the topic of interest were checked, as were references of those articles and historical and culturally complementary information. Results: We described the historical relationship between man and salt, the physiology of salty taste perception, its role in the reward system and the health consequences of a high sodium diet. Discussion and conclusion: There is physiological and behavioural evidence that some people may develop a true addiction to food. Among these people, salt addiction seems to be of great importance in the development of obesity, HT and other diseases. Sodium is present in high quantities in processed food as salt and monosodium glutamate (MSG), used as flavour enhancers and food preservatives, including in non-salty foods like bread and soft drinks. Source

Bini E.I.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNSZ | Bini E.I.,CONICET | D'Attilio L.,CONICET | Marquina-Castillo B.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNSZ | And 8 more authors.

Background The chronic nature of tuberculosis and the protracted immuno-inflammatory reactions are implied in a series of metabolic and immune-endocrine changes accompanying the disease. We explored components from the hypothalamous-pituitary-gonadal axis and their relationship with cytokines involved in disease immunopathology, in male TB patients. Methods Plasma samples from 36 active untreated pulmonary TB male patients were used to determine TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-6, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by ELISA. Healthy controls corresponded to 21 volunteers without contact with TB patients and similar age (40 ± 16,8 years). Testicular histological samples from necropsies of patients dying from TB were immune-stained for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ. The TM3 mouse Leydig cell line was incubated with recombinants TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β, supernatants were collected and used to measure testosterone by ELISA. Results Patients showed decreased levels of testosterone in presence of high amounts of LH, together with augmented IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β levels. Testicular histological sections showed abundant presence of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ in interstitial macrophages, Sertoli cells and some spermatogonia. In vitro treatment of Leydig cells with these cytokines led to a remarkable reduction of testosterone production. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ramirez-Sandoval J.C.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNSZ | Castilla-Peon M.F.,Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez | Gotes-Palazuelos J.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNSZ | Vazquez-Garcia J.C.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases INER | And 6 more authors.
High Altitude Medicine and Biology

Ramirez-Sandoval, Juan C., Maria F. Castilla-Peón, José Gotés-Palazuelos, Juan C. Vázquez-García, Michael P. Wagner, Carlos A. Merelo-Arias, Olynka Vega-Vega, Rodolfo Rincón-Pedrero, and Ricardo Correa-Rotter. Bicarbonate values for healthy residents living in cities above 1500 m of altitude: a theoretical model and systematic review. High Alt Med Biol. 17:85-92, 2016. - Plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 -) concentration is the main value used to assess the metabolic component of the acid-base status. There is limited information regarding plasma HCO3 - values adjusted for altitude for people living in cities at high altitude defined as 1500 m (4921 ft) or more above sea level. Our aim was to estimate the plasma HCO3 - concentration in residents of cities at these altitudes using a theoretical model and compare these values with HCO3 - values found on a systematic review, and with those venous CO2 values obtained in a sample of 633 healthy individuals living at an altitude of 2240 m (7350 ft). We calculated the PCO2 using linear regression models and calculated plasma HCO3 - according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Results show that HCO3 - concentration falls as the altitude of the cities increase. For each 1000 m of altitude above sea level, HCO3 - decreases to 0.55 and 1.5 mEq/L in subjects living at sea level with acute exposure to altitude and in subjects acclimatized to altitude, respectively. Estimated HCO3 - values from the theoretical model were not different to HCO3 - values found in publications of a systematic review or with venous total CO2 measurements in our sample. Altitude has to be taken into consideration in the calculation of HCO3 - concentrations in cities above 1500 m to avoid an overdiagnosis of acid-base disorders in a given individual. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source

Ouederni M.,Pediatric Hematology Immunology Unit | Ouederni M.,Tunis el Manar University | Sanal O.,Ankara University | Ikinciogullari A.,Hacettepe University | And 51 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Background. Interleukin 12Rβ1 (IL-12Rβ1)-deficient patients are prone to clinical disease caused by mycobacteria, Salmonella, and other intramacrophagic pathogens, probably because of impaired interleukin 12-dependent interferon production. About 25% of patients also display mucocutaneous candidiasis, probably owing to impaired interleukin 23-dependent interleukin 17 immunity. The clinical features and outcome of candidiasis in these patients have not been described before, to our knowledge. We report here the clinical signs of candidiasis in 35 patients with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency.Results. Most (n = 71) of the 76 episodes of candidiasis were mucocutaneous. Isolated oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) was the most common presentation (59 episodes, 34 patients) and was recurrent or persistent in 26 patients. Esophageal candidiasis (n = 7) was associated with proven OPC in 2 episodes, and cutaneous candidiasis (n = 2) with OPC in 1 patient, whereas isolated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; n = 3) was not. Five episodes of proven invasive candidiasis were documented in 4 patients; 1 of these episodes was community acquired in the absence of any other comorbid condition. The first episode of candidiasis occurred earlier in life (median age±standard deviation, 1.5 ± 7.87 years) than infections with environmental mycobacteria (4.29 ± 11.9 years), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (4 ± 3.12 years), or Salmonella species (4.58 ± 4.17 years) or other rare infections (3 ± 11.67 years). Candidiasis was the first documented infection in 19 of the 35 patients, despite the vaccination of 10 of these 19 patients with live bacille Calmette-Guérin.Conclusions. Patients who are deficient in IL-12Rβ1 may have candidiasis, usually mucocutaneous, which is frequently recurrent or persistent. Candidiasis may be the first clinical manifestation in these patients. © The Author 2013. Source

Valdes I.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Montoro E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Mata-Espinoza D.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran INCMNSZ | Asin O.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.

Summary Mycobacterium habana was isolated in Cuba in 1971. Later, was demonstrated its protection capacity in mycobacterial infection. Here we determined the level of virulence, immunogenicity and the efficacy of three different M. habana strains as attenuated live vaccines. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice with high dose M. habana TMC 5135 or IPK-337 strains permitted 100% survival and limited tissue damage. Mice infected with M. habana IPK-220 showed lower attenuation, so it was discarded for the vaccination experiments. Strains IPK-337 and TMC 5135 were used as subcutaneous vaccine and compared with BCG. Nude mice vaccinated with strain 5135 showed longer but non-significant survival than BCG vaccinated animals. Cell suspensions from M. habana vaccinated mice produced higher IFNγ after stimulation with mycobacterial antigens than BCG recipients. After four months of challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, mice vaccinated with BCG substrain Phipps or strain TMC 5135 showed total survival, while 60% survival was exhibited by animals vaccinated with M. habana IPK-337. Both M. habana strains do not prevent the infection with M. tuberculosis but avoided the progression of the experimental disease; strain TMC 5135 showed similar level of protection than BCG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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