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Chander M.P.,Medical Port | Pillai C.R.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Sunish I.P.,Medical Port | Vijayachari P.,Medical Port
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J. syringifolium, D. andamanica, C. indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M. andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P. tithymaloides, J. syringifolium and D. andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The in vitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Mehrunnisa A.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Adak T.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Singh O.P.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Nanda N.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

The populations of Anopheles fluviatilis James (1902), a foothill vector, collected from village Tilpuri of district Udham Singh Nagar and from villages Auspur, Ismailpur, and Durgapur of district Hardwar were maintained at National Institute of Malaria Research Insectory at 28 ± 1°C and 80-85% RH. Anopheles fluviatilis sensu lato was identified for two sibling species T and U. A total of 94% of the females of both species T and U oviposited by day 4 after the blood meal. Maximum hatching, that is, 80 and 62% of the eggs of species T and U, was observed on the second and third day, respectively. For species T, mortality in second and third instars was recorded to be 144 ± 9 (N = 1,600) and 48 ± 6 (N = 1,200), whereas in species U, it was 196 ± 13 (N = 1,400) and 70 ± 8 (N = 1,000), respectively. Mortalities in second instars of species T and U were significantly higher than third instars (P = 0.05). The female and male ratio in pupal stage of species T and U was found to be 53:47 and 58:42, respectively. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.

Srihari E.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar G.S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar C.N.S.S.P.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Seth R.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Heterocyclic Communications | Year: 2011

Various quinoline carboxaldehydes were prepared from corresponding anilides using classical Vilsmeier-Haack reaction conditions and transformed into their Baylis-Hillman adducts. The synthesized Baylis-Hillman adducts were screened for their in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum . Most of the compounds out of 21 compounds synthesized and screened exhibited substantial antimalarial activity. © by Walter de Gruyter.

Shalini S.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Chaudhuri S.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Sutton P.L.,New York University | Mishra N.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Assessing the Plasmodium vivax burden in India is complicated by the potential threat of an emerging chloroquine (CQ) resistant parasite population from neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and an urban setting for P. vivax in southern India, was selected as a sentinel site for investigating CQ efficacy and sensitivity in vivax malaria. Methods. CQ efficacy was evaluated with a 28-day in vivo therapeutic study, while CQ sensitivity was measured with an in vitro drug susceptibility assay. In both studies, isolates also underwent molecular genotyping to investigate correlations between parasite diversity and drug susceptibility to CQ. Molecular genotyping included sequencing a 604 base pair (bp) fragment of the P. vivax multidrug resistant gene-1 (Pvmdr1) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also the amplification of eight microsatellite (MS) loci located across the genome on eight different chromosomes. Results: In the 28-day in vivo study (N=125), all subjects were aparasitaemic by Day 14. Passive case surveillance continuing beyond Day 28 in 22 subjects exposed 17 recurrent infections, which ranged from 44 to 148 days post-enrollment. Pvmdr1 sequencing of these recurrent infections revealed that 93.3% had identical mutant haplotypes (958M/Y976/1076L) to their baseline Day 0 infection. MS genotyping further revealed that nine infection pairs were related with ≥75% haplotype similarity (same allele at six or more loci). To test the impact of this mutation on CQ efficacy, an in vitro drug assay (N=68) was performed. No correlation between IC50 values and the percentage of ring-stage parasites prior to culture was observed (rsadj: -0.00063, p = 0.3307) and the distribution of alleles among the Pvmdr1 SNPs and MS haplotypes showed no significant associations with IC50 values. Conclusions: Plasmodium vivax was found to be susceptible to CQ drug treatment in both the in vivo therapeutic drug study and the in vitro drug assay. Though the mutant 1076L of Pvmdr1 was found in a majority of isolates tested, this single mutation did not associate with CQ resistance. MS haplotypes revealed strong heterogeneity in this population, indicating a low probability of reinfection with highly related haplotypes. © 2014Shalini et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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