National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research

Dwārka, India

National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research

Dwārka, India
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Punnam Chander M.,Medical Port | Pillai C.R.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Vijayachari P.,Medical Port
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to assess the antimalarial activity of nine medicinal plants used by Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and in vitro antimalarial activity was assessed using M-III method. The results indicated that out of nine plant species tested, four plants, viz., Z. spectabilis, S. wallichiana, C. pulcherrima and Amomum sp. demonstrated significant antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration values were 5.5 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 2.5, 14.6 ± 1.3 and 37.3 ± 2.5 μg/mL respectively) with no toxicity effect on erythrocytes. © 2016, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.


Parizo J.,Stanford University | Sturrock H.J.W.,University of California at San Francisco | Dhiman R.C.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Greenhouse B.,University of California at San Francisco
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

The world population, especially in developing countries, has experienced a rapid progression of urbanization over the last half century. Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and heterogeneity of the urban environment has made study of specific urban centers vital for urban malaria control programs, whereas more generalizable risk factor identification also remains essential. Ahmedabad city, India, is a large urban center located in the state of Gujarat, which has experienced a significant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum disease burden. Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk factors, and methods of predicting future malaria cases. Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial correlation between species. Because of this stability, a prediction method utilizing historic cases from prior years and seasons was used successfully to predict which areas of Ahmedabad city would experience the highest malaria burden and could be used to prospectively target interventions. Finally, spatial analysis showed that normalized difference vegetation index, proximity to water sources, and location within Ahmedabad city relative to the dense urban core were the best predictors of malaria incidence. Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital to assist in allocating resources and informing future urban planning. © Copyright 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Shalini S.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Chaudhuri S.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Sutton P.L.,New York University | Mishra N.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Assessing the Plasmodium vivax burden in India is complicated by the potential threat of an emerging chloroquine (CQ) resistant parasite population from neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and an urban setting for P. vivax in southern India, was selected as a sentinel site for investigating CQ efficacy and sensitivity in vivax malaria. Methods. CQ efficacy was evaluated with a 28-day in vivo therapeutic study, while CQ sensitivity was measured with an in vitro drug susceptibility assay. In both studies, isolates also underwent molecular genotyping to investigate correlations between parasite diversity and drug susceptibility to CQ. Molecular genotyping included sequencing a 604 base pair (bp) fragment of the P. vivax multidrug resistant gene-1 (Pvmdr1) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also the amplification of eight microsatellite (MS) loci located across the genome on eight different chromosomes. Results: In the 28-day in vivo study (N=125), all subjects were aparasitaemic by Day 14. Passive case surveillance continuing beyond Day 28 in 22 subjects exposed 17 recurrent infections, which ranged from 44 to 148 days post-enrollment. Pvmdr1 sequencing of these recurrent infections revealed that 93.3% had identical mutant haplotypes (958M/Y976/1076L) to their baseline Day 0 infection. MS genotyping further revealed that nine infection pairs were related with ≥75% haplotype similarity (same allele at six or more loci). To test the impact of this mutation on CQ efficacy, an in vitro drug assay (N=68) was performed. No correlation between IC50 values and the percentage of ring-stage parasites prior to culture was observed (rsadj: -0.00063, p = 0.3307) and the distribution of alleles among the Pvmdr1 SNPs and MS haplotypes showed no significant associations with IC50 values. Conclusions: Plasmodium vivax was found to be susceptible to CQ drug treatment in both the in vivo therapeutic drug study and the in vitro drug assay. Though the mutant 1076L of Pvmdr1 was found in a majority of isolates tested, this single mutation did not associate with CQ resistance. MS haplotypes revealed strong heterogeneity in this population, indicating a low probability of reinfection with highly related haplotypes. © 2014Shalini et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chander M.P.,Medical Port | Pillai C.R.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Sunish I.P.,Medical Port | Vijayachari P.,Medical Port
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J. syringifolium, D. andamanica, C. indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M. andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P. tithymaloides, J. syringifolium and D. andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The in vitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research and Medical Port
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2016

In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J.syringifolium, D.andamanica, C.indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M.andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P.tithymaloides, J.syringifolium and D.andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The invitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants.


Mehrunnisa A.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Adak T.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Singh O.P.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | Nanda N.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

The populations of Anopheles fluviatilis James (1902), a foothill vector, collected from village Tilpuri of district Udham Singh Nagar and from villages Auspur, Ismailpur, and Durgapur of district Hardwar were maintained at National Institute of Malaria Research Insectory at 28 ± 1°C and 80-85% RH. Anopheles fluviatilis sensu lato was identified for two sibling species T and U. A total of 94% of the females of both species T and U oviposited by day 4 after the blood meal. Maximum hatching, that is, 80 and 62% of the eggs of species T and U, was observed on the second and third day, respectively. For species T, mortality in second and third instars was recorded to be 144 ± 9 (N = 1,600) and 48 ± 6 (N = 1,200), whereas in species U, it was 196 ± 13 (N = 1,400) and 70 ± 8 (N = 1,000), respectively. Mortalities in second instars of species T and U were significantly higher than third instars (P = 0.05). The female and male ratio in pupal stage of species T and U was found to be 53:47 and 58:42, respectively. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Srihari E.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar G.S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar C.N.S.S.P.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Seth R.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Heterocyclic Communications | Year: 2011

Various quinoline carboxaldehydes were prepared from corresponding anilides using classical Vilsmeier-Haack reaction conditions and transformed into their Baylis-Hillman adducts. The synthesized Baylis-Hillman adducts were screened for their in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum . Most of the compounds out of 21 compounds synthesized and screened exhibited substantial antimalarial activity. © by Walter de Gruyter.


PubMed | National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of parasitology research | Year: 2010

Hexane extract of tuber of plant Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles species A (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The Cyperus rotundus tuber extract was used to determine their effect on mosquito vector, and comparison with the DEET (NN Diethyl 1-3 methyl Benzamide, formerly known as diethyl 1-m-toluamide). The tuber extracts showed more effective at all the dose. Result obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the tuber extracts are more effective for repellency of allthe mosquito vector even at low dose. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 10% tuber extract evoking 100% repellency. Percent protection obtained against An. culicifacies Giles species A 100% repellency in 4 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi 100% repellency in 6 hours and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100% repellency in 6 hours at the 10% concentration. Against DEET- 2.5% An. culicifacies A 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi have shown 100% repellency in 6 hours, and Culex quinquefasciatus have shown 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours. The consolidated data of the repellency observed in different species is given and it is evident that the over all repellency rates varied between 80 and 100% for different repellents concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 10%). The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites.


PubMed | National Institute of Malaria Research Indian Council of Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbes and infection | Year: 2010

In this investigation, we evaluated the naturally acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax stage-specific antigens in individuals of different age groups belonging to malaria endemic areas of northern India. Four synthetic peptides containing both B- and T-cell epitopes from P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, merozoite surface protein-1, apical membrane antigen-1 and gametocyte surface antigen-1 were used to determine both humoral and cellular immune responses. Immunity, in terms of antibody response and T-cell proliferation against these stage-specific peptides, has been observed in the study subjects. The results demonstrated age-dependent antibody response in this population. Forty two patients were diagnosed with P. vivax. There was a significant association (P=0.013) between number of antibody responders and recognition of stage-specific epitopes by antibodies. The antibody response to B-epitopes of P. vivax CSP, MSP1, AMA1 and GAM1 was associated with age; adults responded more frequently to these antigens than did younger children. In this population, 66% (201/304) cases showed seropositivity to all peptides and 13% (41/304) showed negative response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of more than 75% of individuals proliferated in response to stimulation by all four epitopes. In conclusion, the results demonstrated immunogenicity of the epitopes to P. vivax in population of this endemic zone.

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