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Anvikar A.R.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Shah N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Dhariwal A.C.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | Sonal G.S.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. Vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. Vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. Vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. Vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. Vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. Vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Raghavendra K.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Barik T.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Sharma P.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Bhatt R.M.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background. Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. Results. A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies demonstrated the antagonistic effect of PBO. Conclusion. Laboratory studies with susceptible and resistant strains of An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, coupled with limited field studies with multiple insecticide-resistant An. culicifacies have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a suitable insecticide for malaria vector control, in multiple-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes especially in areas with pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes. © 2011 Raghavendra et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Raghavendra K.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Barik T.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Bhatt R.M.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | Srivastava H.C.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widely distributed mosquito vector species in India and also in other tropical regions of the world. This species is implicated in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in many countries. This species is reported to be widely resistant to insecticides of different classes in current use. In the present study, bio-efficacy of chlorfenapyr, an insecticide of pyrrole class with a novel mode of action was tested for the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Studies were performed to determine the diagnostic dosage; residual efficacy on different artificially fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement+distemper; to assess cross-resistance with different insecticides; and synergism/antagonism using piperonyl butoxide (PBO). A dosage of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as diagnostic dosage with 2h exposure and 48h holding period for assessing the susceptibility of mosquitoes. The residual efficacy was observed up to 34 weeks on wood and mud+lime substrates while on other substrates, it was about 15 weeks at a dosage of 400mg a.i./m2. Laboratory-reared strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed cross-resistance, whereas field-collected mosquitoes showed absence of cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr. Potentiation bioassays showed antagonistic effect of PBO to chlorfenapyr toxicity owing to the involvement of oxidases in the initial step of a conversion of pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr to toxic form CL 303268. The present study results have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a potential insecticide for the control of multiple insecticide resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, in countries where indoor residual spray (IRS) is not targeted for the control of this species, like in India, chlorfenapyr used in IRS for the control of malaria vectors in rural and peri-urban areas can additionally provide control of Cx. quinquefasciatus also. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chaturvedi N.,National Health Research Institute | Bhandari S.,National Health Research Institute | Bharti P.K.,National Health Research Institute | Basak S.K.,District Malaria office and Government Maharani Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

Background: We report the first evidence of sympatric distribution of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri from India. Methods: Fingerprick blood sampleswere collected from fever cases in district Bastar, Chhattisgarh State for malaria screening by microscopy and PCR. Results: Two cases of mono infection of P. ovale, and a fatal case of cerebral malaria with a mixed infection of P. vivax, P. falciparum and P. ovale were confirmed by PCR. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Conclusions: This study highlights the need of molecular diagnosis of malaria cases in forested areas for treatment and control. © The Author 2015.

PubMed | National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit, New York University and Civil Hospital
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Reactive case detection (RCD) for malaria is a strategy to identify additional malaria infections in areas of low malaria transmission and can complement passive surveillance. This study describes experiences with RCD in two Indian sites, and aimed to synthesize experiences with RCD across endemic countries.RCD programmes were piloted in two urban areas of India with a low prevalence of mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria in 2014. Cases were identified in a clinic by microscopy and contacts were screened within 2 weeks; PCR, in addition to microscopy, was used to detect Plasmodium parasites. A systematic review was conducted to identify RCD experiences in the literature.In Chennai, 868 contacts were enrolled for 18 index cases of clinical malaria; in Nadiad, 131 contacts were enrolled for 20 index cases. No new malaria infections were detected in Nadiad among contacts, and four new infections were detected in Chennai (three P. vivax and one Plasmodium falciparum), of which two were among household members of index cases. An additional five studies describing results from an RCD strategy were identified in the literature: four in Africa and one in Thailand. Including the results from India, the average number of contacts screened per index case in a total of seven studies ranged from four to 50, and 126 in a case study in Thailand with one index case. Malaria was detected in 0-45 % of the contacted persons. The average number of index cases needed to be traced to find one new case of malaria ranged from one to five, and could not be assessed in one study in India (no contacts positive for 20 cases). Sharing the household with an index case was associated with a five-fold increased risk of malaria compared to contacts from households without an index case (pooled risk ratio 5.29, 95 % CI 3.31-8.47, I(2) 0 %, four studies).RCD in areas of low malaria transmission is a labour-intensive strategy, and its benefit is not clear. Studies are needed to assess how RCD can be optimized or into alternatives where interventions are targeted to family members or hotspots.

PubMed | University of California at Irvine, National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit, New York University, National Institute of Malaria Research and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2017

Understanding naturally acquired immune responses to Plasmodium in India is key to improving malaria surveillance and diagnostic tools. Here we describe serological profiling of immune responses at three sites in India by probing protein microarrays consisting of 515 Plasmodium vivax and 500 Plasmodium falciparum proteins with 353 plasma samples. A total of 236 malaria-positive (symptomatic and asymptomatic) plasma samples and 117 malaria-negative samples were collected at three field sites in Raurkela, Nadiad, and Chennai. Indian samples showed significant seroreactivity to 265 P. vivax and 373 P. falciparum antigens, but overall seroreactivity to P. vivax antigens was lower compared to P. falciparum antigens. We identified the most immunogenic antigens of both Plasmodium species that were recognized at all three sites in India, as well as P. falciparum antigens that were associated with asymptomatic malaria. This is the first genome-scale analysis of serological responses to the two major species of malaria parasite in India. The range of immune responses characterized in different endemic settings argues for targeted surveillance approaches tailored to the diverse epidemiology of malaria across the world.

Mishra N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Kaitholia K.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Srivastava B.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Shah N.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in India has historically travelled from northeast India along the Myanmar border. The treatment policy for P. falciparum in the region was, therefore, changed from chloroquine to artesunate (AS) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in selected areas in 2005 and in 2008 it became the first-line treatment. Recognizing that resistance to the partner drug can limit the useful life of this combination therapy, routine in vivo and molecular monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy through sentinel sites was initiated in 2009. Methods. Between May and October 2012, 190 subjects with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, and Mizoram. Clinical and parasitological assessments were conducted over 42 days of follow-up. Multivariate analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with treatment failure. Genotyping was done to distinguish re-infection from recrudescence as well as to determine the prevalence of molecular markers of antifolate resistance among isolates. Results: A total of 169 patients completed 42 days of follow-up at three sites. The crude and PCR-corrected Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of AS + SP were 60.8% (95% CI: 48.0-71.4) and 76.6% (95% CI: 64.1-85.2) in Gomati, Tripura; 74.6% (95% CI: 62.0-83.6) and 81.7% (95% CI: 69.4-89.5) in Lunglei, Mizoram; and, 59.5% (95% CI: 42.0-73.2) and 82.3% (95% CI: 64.6-91.6) in Changlang, Arunachal Pradesh. Most patients with P. falciparum cleared parasitaemia within 24 hours of treatment, but eight, including three patients who failed treatment, remained parasitaemic on day 3. Risk factors associated with treatment failure included age < five years, fever at the time of enrolment and AS under dosing. No adverse events were reported. Presence of dhfr plus dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. Conclusion: AS + SP treatment failure was widespread in northeast India and exceeded the threshold for changing drug policy. Based on these results, in January 2013 the expert committee of the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme formulated the first subnational drug policy for India and selected artemether plus lumefantrine as the new first-line treatment in the northeast. Continued monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy is essential for effective malaria control. © 2014 Mishra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mallick P.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Joshi H.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Valecha N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Sharma S.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | And 6 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Chloroquine resistance (CQR) phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes. Mutations at amino acid position 72-76 of pfcrt gene, here defined as pfcrt haplotype are associated with the geographic origin of chloroquine resistant parasite. Here, mutations at 72-76 and codon 220 of pfcrt gene and N86Y pfmdr-1 mutation were studied in blood samples collected across 11 field sites, inclusive of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas in India. Any probable correlation between these mutations and clinical outcome of CQ treatment was also investigated. Methods. Finger pricked blood spotted on Whatman No.3 papers were collected from falciparum malaria patients of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas. For pfcrt haplotype investigation, the parasite DNA was extracted from blood samples and used for PCR amplification, followed by partial sequencing of the pfcrt gene. For pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation, the PCR product was subjected to restriction digestion with AflIII endonuclease enzyme. Results: In 240 P. falciparum isolates with reported in vivo CQ therapeutic efficacy, the analysis of mutations in pfcrt gene shows that mutant SVMNT-S (67.50%) and CVIET-S (23.75%) occurred irrespective of clinical outcome and wild type CVMNK-A (7.91%) occurred only in adequate clinical and parasitological response samples. Of 287 P. falciparum isolates, SVMNTS 192 (66.89%) prevailed in all study sites and showed almost monomorphic existence (98.42% isolates) in low P. falciparum prevalent areas. However, CVIETS-S (19.51%) and CVMNK-A (11.84%) occurrence was limited to high P. falciparum prevalent areas. Investigation of pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation shows no correlation with clinical outcomes. The wild type N86 was prevalent in all the low P. falciparum prevalent areas (94.48%). However, mutant N86Y was comparably higher in numbers at the high P. falciparum prevalent areas (42.76%). Conclusions: The wild type pfcrt gene is linked to chloroquine sensitivity; however, presence of mutation cannot explain the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in the current scenario of chloroquine resistance. The monomorphic existence of mutant SVMNT haplotype, infer inbreeding and faster spread of CQR parasite in areas with higher P. vivax prevalance and chloroquine exposure, whereas, diversity is maintained in pfcrt gene at high P. falciparum prevalent areas. © 2011 Mallick et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Nagaraj V.A.,Indian Institute of Science | Sundaram B.,Indian Institute of Science | Varadarajan N.M.,Indian Institute of Science | Subramani P.A.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC), in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb). The wild-type and knockout (KO) parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA). We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages. © 2013 Nagaraj et al.

Kant R.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Haq S.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | Srivastava H.C.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit | Sharma V.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2013

Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable.

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