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Katsumata M.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Recently, pork with marbling has received attention as good quality pork and scientists are required to develop methods to produce pork with reasonable amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF). The aim of this review is to describe studies relevant to promotion of IMF accumulation in porcine muscle by nutritional regulation. The main focus is on effect of dietary lysine levels. First, we found dietary low lysine up-regulated glucose transporter protein 4 messenger (m)RNA expression in Longissimus dorsi (L. dorsi) and Rhomboideus muscles. In addition, the proportion of oxidative fiber of both muscles was also enhanced by dietary low lysine. Because it has been observed that higher oxidative capacity is associated with higher IMF content, we hypothesized that dietary low lysine would promote IMF accumulation. Further, higher mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, in both muscles induced by dietary low lysine, supported this hypothesis. Indeed, IMF content of L. dorsi muscle of finishing pigs given a low lysine diet for 2months until reaching the market weight was twice that of pigs given a control diet. Possible underlying mechanisms of IMF accumulation in porcine muscle and future perspectives are also discussed in this review. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Osada T.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Takada R.,Niigata University | Shinzato I.,Ajinomoto Co.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Although effects of dietary protein reduction on N excretion are well documented, the potential of protein reduction to decrease N2O and CH4 emissions has not been widely examined. We completed N balance experiments in growing swine to assess effects of a low protein diet supplemented with amino acids on N retention. Feces and urine obtained were used to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from composting and wastewater treatment processes. Five crossbred barrows of 38kg were used. The crude protein (CP) contents in the control (CONT) and low CP (LOW) diets were 171g/kg and 145g/kg (as fed), respectively. The low CP diet was supplemented with lysine, threonine, methionine and tryptophan at levels sufficient to meet their requirements. A crossover experiment was completed in which feces and urine were collected separately and used for the subsequent experiment. Manure from swine fed the control or low CP diet was placed in an experimental composting apparatus with forced aeration, and GHG emissions were measured during a 5 wk composting period. Two bench scale activated sludge units were used for wastewater treatment. Under a hydraulic retention time of 5 d and biochemical oxygen demand loading rate of 0.4kgm3/d, both sets of wastewater experiments were for 6 wks. Two 5 d measurements of GHG were compared between CONT and LOW. There were no differences in daily barrow weight gain and N retention between CONT and LOW. However, urinary N excretion of 5.5g/kg dry matter (DM) intake) and total N excretion of 10.1g/kg DM intake were lower in the LOW group than in CONT. The amount of N excreted in feces and urine was reduced by 28.7% in the LOW group. The reduction in manure GHG emissions was even higher, with a 39.1% reduction in the LOW group, although there was no change in emission factors as CH4/VS or N2O/N) compared with manure from CONT. About 0.5% of the influent N was emitted as N2O from compost and about 1.8% as N2O from wastewater. Compared with total emissions, six times more N2O was emitted through wastewater treatment than from composting. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editor; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kushibiki S.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is recognized as a cytokine because of its involvement in inflammation-mediated biological defense functions. Although TNF-α is primarily produced by macrophages, it is also produced by other cells, including lymphocytes, Kupffer cells, natural killer cells and adipocytes. While TNF-α has diverse immune system functions, including antitumor activity, antimicrobial activity and mediation of inflammation, it also regulates a number of physiological functions, including appetite, fever, energy metabolism and endocrine activity. Factors such as viruses, parasites, other cytokines, and endotoxins induce TNF-α production. In combination with other cytokines, TNF-α plays a clinically important role in cattle by mediating immune inflammatory responses such as mastitis and endotoxic shock. It has been reported that cytokines such as TNF-α are involved in metabolic disease such as acidosis. On the other hand, several data suggest that lactoferrin (LF) acts to prevent the release of a number of inflammatory mediators from various activated cells, and further suggest that the prophylactic effect of LF involves inhibition of cytokine production, including TNF-α, that are principal mediators of the inflammatory response leading to death from toxic shock. This review discusses the role of TNF-α in pathological conditions in cattle, including infections and metabolic diseases caused by perturbation of metabolism and endocrine functions. © 2011 The Author. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Rikimaru K.,Akita | Takahashi H.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2010

The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to the Akita Prefecture in northern Honshu, Japan. A cross between the Hinai-dori and Rhode Island Red breeds has been commercialized as the Hinai-jidori chicken, and is one of the most popular brands in Japan. The meat of the Hinaijidori chicken is considered much more palatable than that of typical broilers. To identify the candidate substances influencing the palatability of chicken meat, quantitative analyses were performed on the general biochemical components, free amino acids, inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), and fatty acids in the thigh meat of Hinai-jidori and broiler chickens. Hinai-jidori chickens and broilers were fed the same diet for 8 and 22 wk and were reared under the same conditions. The levels of free amino acids and glutamic acid in the meat of 8-wk-old broilers were significantly higher than those of 22-wk-old Hinai-jidori chickens. In addition, the IMP levels in 22-wk-old Hinai-jidori chickens were significantly higher than those of 8-wk-old broilers, whereas no significant difference in IMP levels was observed between 22-wk-old Hinai- jidori chickens and broilers. These data suggest that IMP content reflects a difference in the ages (weeks) of the chickens rather than a difference between the strains. However, a significant difference in arachidonic acid content was observed between Hinai-jidori chickens and broilers, suggesting that the high arachidonic acid content is a characteristic feature of Hinai-jidori chicken meat. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between arachidonic acid content and the palatability of Hinai-jidori chicken meat. © 2010 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Yamada T.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Nakanishi N.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Meat Science | Year: 2012

In this experiment, we studied the effects of the dietary roughage/concentrate ratio on the expression of the angiogenic growth factor (VEGF and FGF-2) and the adipogenic transcription factor (C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ) gene in the adipose tissues of Wagyu steers. Steers were fed a high-roughage diet (R group, 35% roughage and 65% concentrate on a TDN basis) or a high-concentrate diet (C group, 10% roughage and 90% concentrate) during the entire fattening period (from 10 to 30. months of age) with the same amount of TDN intake between groups. In mesenteric and intermuscular adipocytes, the expression of the angiogenic growth factors was higher in the R group than in the C group. In contrast, the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in the subcutaneous and intramuscular adipocytes was higher in the C group than in the R group. These results indicate that the dietary roughage/concentrate ratio affects the fat depot-specific differences in the angiogenic and adipogenic gene expression pattern. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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