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Kume S.,Kyoto University | Sato T.,Kyoto University | Murai I.,Kyoto University | Kitagawa M.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Data of 20 balance measurements from Holstein dairy cows and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black beef cows were collected to evaluate the relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages. The ratio of forages in the diet was 70-100% in dairy cows and beef cows were fed Italian ryegrass silage and wheat bran. Mean urine pH in dairy cows was 8.10, ranging from 7.27 to 8.71, and that in beef cows was 7.73, ranging from 7.42 to 8.12. There were positive correlations between urine pH and urinary K contents (P=0.0012) or K intake (P=0.019) in dairy cows, although plasma Na, Cl and K had no effect on urine pH. There was a weak negative correlation (P=0.039) between urine pH and urinary Na content in dairy cows. However, there were no significant correlations between urine pH and urinary Na, Cl and K contents in beef cows. These results indicate that the concentrated urinary K due to the increased K intake may directly enhance urine pH in dairy cows fed mainly forages. © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Komatsu M.,National Institute of Livestock | Itoh T.,Maebashi Institute of Animal Science | Fujimori Y.,Ibaraki Prefecture Livestock Research Center | Satoh M.,National Institute of Livestock | And 5 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We carried out a genetic association study between five nucleotide polymorphisms (5'UTR microsatellite ((TG)n), nt-7(C>A), L24V, DelR242 and Intron 1 microsatellite) of the GHSR1a gene and growth and carcass traits in 1285 steers sired by 117 Japanese Black bulls in a progeny testing program. We report herein, a significant association between the 5'UTR microsatellite and nt-7(C>A) loci and growth and carcass traits. We also propose a translational hypothesis that the association is due to differences in the secondary structure of GHSR1b mRNA (the non-spliced type with the 5'UTR microsatellite) among the GHSR1a gene haplotypes. Furthermore, we predicted the potential increase in profitability due to increased carcass weight in cow-calf fattening enterprises through planned matings based on DNA testing of the 5'UTR microsatellite. Statistical analysis revealed that the 5'UTR microsatellite locus had a significant additive effect on carcass weight (CW) and average daily gain (ADG), but not on beef marbling score (BMS). One of the four major microsatellite alleles (19-TG allele) with an allele frequency of 0.145, had a significantly (P<0.0007) desirable effect on CW and ADG. We concluded that the 19-TG allele could potentially be economically useful nucleotide markers for growth and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle. © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Sasaki O.,National Institute of Livestock | Kimura H.,Maebashi Institute of Animal Science Inc. | Ishii K.,National Institute of Livestock | Satoh M.,National Institute of Livestock | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Dairy farm agricultural income should increase when sexed semen is used instead of unsexed semen. This study simulated three scenarios: using unsexed semen (N), using X sperm of Holstein and unsexed semen of Japanese Black (H), and using X sperm of Holstein and Y sperm of Japanese Black (HJ). Two management scenarios were considered: conventional management (CONV); and the use of Japanese Black semen with surplus cows to produce F1s where sufficient replacement female Holstein calves were obtained for maintenance (MAINT). In CONV, the agricultural incomes of H and HJ were 610000-2400000 yen higher than that of N. The agricultural income increased when the difference in the prices between Holstein males and average F1 male/female calves was 34000-50000 yen, that between Holstein male and female calves was 80000-110000 yen, and that between F1 male and female calves was 50000-90000 yen. Therefore, the agricultural income can be increased by using sexed semen to select calves of a more valued breed and sex. © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Sasaki K.,National Institute of Livestock | Ishihara K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Science | Yamazaki M.,National Institute of Livestock | Nakashima K.,National Institute of Livestock | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Effects of the oral administration of fucoxanthin (FX), a major carotenoid of algae, on plasma fucoxanthinol (FX-OH) concentration, plasma antioxidative status, and meat color and lipid stability during chilling storage in broiler chicks were investigated. One-week-old male broiler chicks were divided into control and FX treatment groups. For the FX treatement group, FX was given into the crop of each bird at a volume of 10mg per day per bird for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, the plasma, liver, and superficial pectoral muscle were harvested. FX was not detected in either the plasma or liver of control and FX-treated birds, although FX-OH was detected in both the plasma and liver of the FX-treated group. Plasma antioxidative activity against a peroxyl radical derived from 2,2′-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride was observed in FX-treated chicks but not in control chicks. FX treatment did not affect the L* and a* values nor the lipid peroxide content of superficial pectoral muscle during 6 days of chilling storage. However, FX treatment increased the b* value of superficial pectoral muscle compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results indicated that FX was incorporated and converted into FX-OH during absorption, and that FX-OH acted as an antioxidant in chick plasma. It was also revealed that the FX treatment for broiler chicks affected their meat color. Our results suggested that FX is a potent antioxidative feed ingredient for enhancing both the plasma antioxidative status and meat color in broiler chicks.

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