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De Andrade E.D.T.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas INI Fiocruz | Hennington E.A.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas INI Fiocruz | De Siqueira H.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Rolla V.C.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas INI Fiocruz | Mannarino C.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas INI Fiocruz
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target. Goal To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Methods Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/ interactions axis. Results Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. Conclusion The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health strategies. © 2015 de Andrade et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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